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Memory maintenance: A memorized repertoire requires two investments of time: the rst is the initial memorizing process, plus a second "maintenance" component for archiving the memory permanently and for repairing forgotten sections. During the lifetime of a pianist, the maintenance component is by far the larger one because the initial investment is zero or even negative as we have seen (you save time by memorizing). Maintenance is one reason why some give up memorizing: why memorize if I am going to forget it eventually Maintenance can limit the size of a repertoire because after memorizing, say, ve to ten hours of music, the maintenance requirements may preclude memorizing any more pieces. An obvious one is to abandon the memorized pieces and to re-memorize later as needed. If not well memorized the rst time, you may have to go through the entire memorizing procedure all over again. If you memorized before practicing the pieces and practiced only from memory, the results generally qualify as well memorized. Pieces learned in those early years are practically never forgotten and, even if forgotten, are easily re-memorized. Although many people have little trouble memorizing new material past age 70 using the above memory methods, they must know that the newly memorized material may need constant maintenance to preserve them. Maintenance time is a good time to revisit the score and check your accuracy for the individual notes and the expression marks. Since you used the same score to learn the piece, there is a good chance that if you made a mistake reading the score the rst time, you will make the same mistake again later on, and never catch that mistake. Any major difference between your playing and the recording will stand out as a jarring experience and is easy to catch. For more step-by-step examples of how to do this, see (45) Practice Routines: Bach Inventions, Sinfonia. It is so all-encompassing that it is not possible to devote one section to explaining it; rather, it permeates practically every section of this book. Can you imagine what disasters would happen if we never had a mental plan for the day The inability to compose or improvise is a major handicap for an advanced pianist. Many pianists have the misconception that the expensive, huge, concert grand produces its wondrous sound, creating music, and therefore we must train our ngers for learning to play the piano. Therefore, it is more important to train the brain than the ngers, especially because any nger movement must originate in the brain: music and technique cannot be learned separately. In order to speak sentences backwards, all you do is to write it on an imaginary blackboard and read it backwards. Try it yourself: write "dog" on that mental blackboard and read it 40 backwards; when that becomes easy, try two words, "mad dog", etc. We can now explain why famous geniuses, such as Beethoven, Einstein, "professors", etc. Storage: everything we experience is stored in temporary memory and then transferred to permanent memory, an automatic process that takes about 5 minutes, where it is stored practically for life. Savants that can remember everything indenitely provide the best proof that memory is permanent. My hypothesis for human memory is that information is stored in a "memory eld" in various areas of the brain. The memory is not at any specic location, but is distributed in many areas of the brain, like a holograph. In computer memory, each memory has an address, so we know how computers recall memory. My hypothesis is that the recall process is an association process, and the most obvious associative process is an overlap of memory elds. That is, when two related memories are stored, their memory elds overlap; the closer the relationship, the greater the overlap and the easier the recall. With time, however, more such overlaps will be stored so that the brain must search through more overlaps. The probability of confusion increases with time because the probability that the brain will choose the wrong overlap increases as the number of overlaps increases. Memory is most easily recalled if the memory is associated with something easy to remember, such as outrageous, funny, familiar, etc. The system of memory elds is complex because it is continually modied by the 41 brain. The abstract "airplane" does not exist outside the brain, but is created in memory and includes everything from toy paper planes to the largest jumbo jets. Abstracts are generalized objects and they enable thought processes and languages. Thus we are generally dealing with memory elds of abstracts, not the original memory elds from external inputs such as visual, auditory, touch, smell, taste, etc. Thus the human memory is not a passive memory like the computer disk, but is an active processor of incoming information into simpler abstracts that are more manageable. However, because there are savants that can recall all the original data, those data are apparently also stored in the brain. This memory-eld-overlap recall process is similar to a basic phenomenon in quantum mechanics. The probability of an electron emitting a photon is given by the overlap of the electron and photon wave functions mediated by the emission function. Therefore the human memory recall process may be mimicking a basic process in nature. This mimicking is common: electrons orbit atom nuclei, planets orbit the sun, and stars orbit black holes in galaxies. The most advanced theory of cosmology posits that the universe is made up of strings so small that nobody can see them; thus the piano strings making music emulates string theory that creates the universe. If you ask a musician to memorize a full page of random music notes, he will have great difficulty memorizing even a single page because he has nothing with which to associate random notes. This musician will have no trouble memorizing a 20 page sonata quickly because the sonata has melodies, rhythm, etc. All you have to do is to associate the music with the theory and you have it memorized. Although music theory memory is the best, it is not equally helpful to everybody because most students do not know enough theory. The strongest evidence for the associative nature of human memory comes from tests on good memorizers who can perform incredible feats such as memorizing hundreds of telephone numbers from a phone book. The algorithms are different for each person, but they are all devices for associating the objects to be memorized with something that have patterns that are already in memory. For example, for remembering hundreds of numbers, one algorithm is to associate a sound with each number. The sounds are chosen such that they form "words" when strung together, not in English, but in a new "language" (algorithm) that is created for that purpose. The amazing thing is the speed with which good memorizers can map the object to be memorized onto their algorithms. Super memorizers develop after much hard work in perfecting their algorithms and practicing every day, just like pianists. What is so intriguing is that the algorithm contains 132 letters, yet it is much easier to remember than the 14 numbers because of familiar associations. First memorize both the 14 numbers (if you can it is not easy for me) and the above algorithm. Then 24 hours later, try to write down the numbers from memory and from the algorithm; you will nd the algorithm to be much better. Because of the huge information processing power of the brain, the retrieval process is more efficient if there are more relevant associations and the number of these associations quickly increases in size as more items are memorized because they can be cross-associated. Therefore the human memory is almost diametrically opposite to the computer memory: the more you memorize, the easier it becomes to memorize because you can create more associations; each new association provides numerous new possible routes for recall. Thus everything we know about memory tells us that exercising our memory will strengthen it.

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It was a forum for academics, practitioners been practised by the people since time immemorial. It is a mixture of Sinhala traditional medicine services and the promotion of safe and effective use of (Deshiya Chikitsa), the Ayurveda and Siddha systems of traditional and complementary medicine. The event also included a parallel of life in Sri Lanka and is generally the frst approach educational exhibition and trade fair on traditional and for disease control by the locals. However, once we were cleared the pageantry began with a ceremonial procession of dancers, the lighting of the traditional oil lamp and the national anthem, Sri Lanka Matha. In his opening ceremony address, the President emphasised the need to restore the honour of traditional medicine doctors, which would in turn re-establish native Sri Lankan values. Standing out in the crowd I saw, I am told, the Vedda community chief Uruwarige Wannila Aetto. The Vedda, or Wanniya-laeto (forest-dwellers) as they call A textbook purchase for the equivalent of $2. The chieftain, who had a white beard us in toto but my advice for you is to stop destroying fowing down his bare chest, was wearing a traditional the natural environment in planning your development sarong and carrying a jungle axe over his shoulder, work. They are hunter nature gifted trees, plants and fowers and replacing them gatherers faced with an imminent threat of extinction as with industry made artifcial trees, plants and fowers a consequence of their contact with the more advanced which you are doing now. According to the Veddas, most of the people to curtail destroying the environment in planning diseases are caused by ancestral spirits, Nae Yakku. We Veddas are living with nature health, wellness and people-centered health care and in the natural environment and our medical systems are promoting the safe and effective use of traditional medicine by regulating, researching and integrating traditional medicine products, practitioners and practice into public health systems, where appropriate. She said the Tradmed International symposium gave a valuable boost to research and congratulated the organisers. For Australian herbalists, the most exciting representation was by an Australian researcher revealing that a native Australian plant could be the key to a Zika virus cure. Dr Trudi Collet, a biochemist who heads a team that examines the medicinal properties of Australian native plants, said she had been examining the antiviral effects of a particular compound when her team found it could kill the Zika virus without any damage to the host. Dr Collet is currently doing pioneering work in the development of novel therapeutics for global the Veda community chief Uruwarige Wannila Aetto in his infections and diseases. Unfortunately, for commercial reasons, Dr Collet would not disclose which plant these potential breakthroughs had come from. Dr Collet said while it is a plant which is indigenous to Australia it was not used as a traditional medicine by Australian Aborigines. She said antimicrobials are central to the global health system and the recent spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has signifcantly depleted the supply of effcacious antibiotics. The rate at which resistant organisms are being uncovered exceeds that at which new effective therapeutics are being discovered. She said there fndings will have a signifcant global impact given the are currently more than 342, 000 Australians living with dearth of antibiotics currently available to have the ability dementia and this is expected to rise to almost 900, 000 to effectively clear an infection caused by an antibiotic by 2050 without a medical breakthrough. The project disease is the accumulation of amyloid plaques between investigated the antibacterial properties of compounds nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind clinical trial on patients with osteoarthritis who received 500mg of Turmacin (a water-soluble composition derived from turmeric standardised to contain bioactive polysaccharides) demonstrated safety and effcacy. It contains Gymnema lactiferum (Ceylon grand entrance at the opening ceremony of Tradmed cow plant) leaves, Murraya koenigii (Curry tree) International. Clinical studies have shown some signifcant results as adjuvants in preventing adverse drug reactions, promoting rapid recovery, early sputum negative results and as hepatoprotectives. Piperine, from Piper longum, enhances the bioavailability of the antibiotic rifampicine. An ethanolic leaf extract of gotu kola was shown to ameliorate the toxic effects of the antibiotic isonicotinyl hydrazine in vivo. Other important rasayana herbs are Withania somnifera (744 PubMed search results), Bacopa monnieri (148 PubMed search results) and turmeric (Curcuma longa 2242, turmeric 3103 and curcumin 7462 PubMed search results). Despite extraordinary advances in our understanding of the biology of cancer, more than 90 A rainbow of healthy porridges, fruit juices and teas at the educational exhibition and trade fair on traditional and per cent of all new oncology drugs that enter clinical complementary medicine. Many of the approved drugs are effective only within pericarp and Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry) selected patient populations but with many side effects fruit in 1:2:2:2 ratio respectively. Free radicals and exorbitant prices limiting their availability to the may signifcantly aggravate diabetic induced economically advantaged. Medicinal herbs used in atherosclerosis and antioxidant activity is important traditional treatment systems are being increasingly to control the complications of diabetes. Sixty young adults were followed for three months and assessed for improved cognitive function. With the use of rasayana drugs an early recovery, better compliance with medical treatment and better management of multidrug resistant and extensively drug-resistant cases may be managed without adverse drug reactions. In Ayurveda pulmonary tuberculosis has been well described since antiquity and written documentation spans more than 3000 years. In spite of notable progress, the challenge A traditional dancer blows the hakgediya, a type of conch that is now faced is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis shell which is used as a kind of trumpet in the traditional and the debilitating effects of anti-tuberculosis drugs. There are also unique issues in relation to getting ethical approval for such studies. Challenges include existing laws by regulatory bodies, professional misunderstandings and conficts among sectors on sharing resources. The unavailability and diffculty of fnding treatment facilities at which multiple systems can be practised also poses a challenge for conducting clinical research on integrated approaches, particularly when they are hospital-based. Problems can also arise due to attitudes of health care providers, rules and regulations and issues regarding the ownership of the integrated treatment model. The perceived advantages of integrative approaches are multiple modalities to combat disease, the possibility of reduced chances of having dose the Piper longum (Pepper) plant at the entrance of the related side effects as the required drug doses could be symposium. Many clinical studies have been conducted to design patient-individualised treatment models. The integrations basic science research and implementing presence of a large number of active compounds that national policies promoting integration. It is used medicinally for molecular-level evidence of how these treatments may nausea, vomiting and to stimulate hunger during have activity. The purifcation process increased expectations when dealing with many disease tetrahydrocannabinoic acid and cannabidiol and conditions.

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Beethoven was the second most popular composer the favourite Beethoven piano sonatas were: 1 Opus 27 no. The top 10 composers, Chopin, Beethoven, Schubert, Liszt, Schumann, Bach, Debussy, Mozart, Brahms and Ravel, accounted for over three quarters of the top 100 pieces. Particular composers and pieces were passed over by the voters that in my opinion might have had a claim to be included. Most of the 100 pieces contained memorable melodic lines and there tended to be an absence of percussive piano writing. To assist the reader I have included nicknames, both authorised and unauthorised, and to avoid cluttering the text I have omitted inverted commas. To obtain manageable results I excluded the 11 composers with only one concerto in the top 37. Where composers were equal in terms of number of pieces I decided the ranking on the basis of the average ranking of their concertos. Just over one-half of the 33 piano concertos were in a major key and just under one-half were in a minor key. Composers passed over by voters Haydn: D major concerto Mendelssohn: G minor concerto Franck: Variations Symphoniques Dohnanyi: Variations on a Nursery Rhyme Bartok: Concerto no. His other piano concertos (with the exception of the B flat piano concerto and his transcription of his violin concerto) were included. Tchaikovsky came third with his B flat minor concerto although his G major concerto came in quite low at 29. Mozart was the most popular composer in terms of the number of his concertos, with seven in all, which were fairly evenly spaced. Particular composers and concertos were passed over by the voters that in my opinion might have had a claim to be included. The Liszt E flat was low in the list, well below the Litolff, and the Liszt A major missed out altogether. Most of the 37 piano concertos contained memorable melodic lines and there tended to be an absence of percussive piano writing. Although this survey took place between the 2004 and 2007 surveys it is more convenient to deal with it here. The Mozart moments were apparently equated in most cases by the voters and/or those responsible for collating the responses into votes for particular movements of stated Mozart compositions. Top 25 Mozart moments from his piano concertos and piano pieces from 2006 survey 1 Piano concerto no. There were 9 Mozart moments in the 2006 results that were not in the 2004 or 2007 results and there were 2 Mozart piano concertos in the 2004 results that were not in the 2006 results. As I was correlating movements with whole pieces and whole concertos, the results were only broadly comparable. The main surprise was that the Variations on Ah vous dirai-je Maman K265 were much more popular with 2006 voters than with 2004 voters. Analyses of the results provide empirical evidence as to the current preferences of Australian music lovers in relation to the solo piano and piano concerto repertoire and form a basis for future music policy, planning and development. There are different views on practising the piano and for how long one should practice at any one time. Most agree that young people should endeavour to practise at a set time each day and for a minimum period. Practice should start with scales and arpeggios which should be practised musically, with hands together and separately. Experiment with different dynamics levels and gradations, staccato and legato touches, accentuation and tempos. Mix up your scales and arpeggios by playing every kind you know that start on a particular note. Practise C major together and in contrary motion, C harmonic minor together and in contrary motion, C melodic minor, chromatic scale on C, arpeggios of tonic, dominate and diminished seventh on C. Chords, and octaves broken between the hands, may be practised with both hands together. Study the title, time and key signatures, tempo, style and structure of the piece. Always have a pencil and soft eraser beside the piano to make your own notes on the score as to fingerings that you find suitable and your solutions to various issues of technique, expression and interpretation. Once the notes are learnt it will be necessary to practice the whole piece slowly and to practise some passages with hands separately. Every piece has difficult passages although a passage which is difficult for one pianist may not always be so for another. It is important not to stumble, stop and go back because this inhibits the development of a correct memory. Do not repeat the same mistakes as this will only cause them to become more deeply ingrained. Correct a mistake from a few beats before as it is the movement to the note or chord that is part of the problem. These include practising it staccato, with a lighter touch, with the wrist higher or lower, with flatter or rounder fingers, with the hand closer in to the keyboard, or with a freer elbow. It is not the greatest number of repetitions of a piece that is important but the greatest number of correct repetitions. To help with accuracy always practise steadily and carefully, very slowly at first, gradually increasing the speed over a period of time. If the piece is a dance, imagine how the dancers would be dressed and how they would be dancing. If the piece is like a song without words, make up your own words, reflecting on the mood of the music. Imagine the piano texture as coming from a large orchestra or a small chamber music ensemble, or imagine the piano melody as being played by a cello, clarinet or oboe. Once you have learnt the piece make it your piece but listen to other performances and recordings to get inspiration. Sit down with the score and read it through, giving the perfect performance in your mind, then sit with your eyes closed and do the same without the score. Listen to your recording noting the parts that do not satisfy you and record the piece again. Many families buy one for their children with the intention of disposing of it after several years. A properly serviced and well maintained piano could last for up to a hundred years but, as with new cars, a new piano will lose a substantial part of its value the moment it leaves the showroom. Even the finest piano is not a good proposition as a pure investment but it is possible to buy a useful piano that will hold its value for many years if it is properly maintained. A good piano will last a long time so, although it may seem like a lot of money initially, over the period of usage it is very little. The width is the same but a very small grand piano will only have two to three feet more depth than an upright piano. In an upright piano this is achieved with springs, which add extra resistance to the action and can lead to an uneven response over time. A large upright piano (118 cm and above) will have a better tone than a baby grand. Decide whether a fancy casework or a good tone is more important to you, and whether you want the piano as furniture or as a good performing instrument.

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The continuous professionalization of teachers is justified not only by the need for updating, improvement and innovation, but also by the very nature of the education system which has been undergoing successive changes to meet societal challenges. Thus, the training of teachers should take into account the problems of contemporaneity and bet on competent professionalism capable of responding to the challenges of professional and personal daily life, as well as preparing autonomous citizens, critical, reflective, responsible and constructively intervening in society. In this perspective, we define as an objective of this study to understand the contribution of the continuous training of teachers in conflict mediation. Thus, the research carried out allowed us to recognize that: 1) the motivations of teachers to train in conflict mediation, highlighting the need to update knowledge and action strategies, since the public attending school is changing, and problems related to indiscipline arise more often. It was understood that teachers had as their main objective to acquire socio-educational skills to better deal with students and be better prepared to face the socio-educational challenges of school life. By acting in the management of interpersonal relations and conflicts, the teacher is exercising his mission as educator of young citizens living in society. The school, and consequently the teacher, is faced with a wide-ranging action in which he must know how to intelligently combine the transmission of scientific knowledge with social learning. The adaptation and improvement of educational practice has become a necessity, if not a requirement, of the teacher inserted in a global society in constant change. To this extent, teacher training is a means of renewing skills that best enables them to work with all students according to their real possibilities. It is about better responding to the objectives of inclusive education and educational improvement. Formacao continuada: um estudo colaborativo com professores do Ensino Medio de Rondonia. La formacion continuada del profesorado de ensenanza obligatoria: Indicencia de la Formacion Continuada en la practica docente y el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. O Papel do Professor como Mediador de Conflitos entre Criancas da Educacao Infantil. La Trama revista interdisciplinaria de mediacion y resolucion de conflitos, 41, 1-14. Nevertheless, society is far from generating widespread well-being, which is why social economy initiatives are vital in minimizing situations such as inequality, poverty, migration, etc. One of the great challenges of the social economy is to secure the necessary funding for the organizations and institutions in the sector. This is an exploratory study on the relevance that the new investment mechanism impact investment can play in financing the social economy. Our study allowed to conclude that impact investment can be an alternative source of funds for organizations in the tertiary sector; it can effectively create a highly efficient impact thus benefiting a larger number of projects and people. In addition, the level that society has reached has not yet made it possible to eliminate social imbalances that over generations make it necessary for organizations to intervene to minimize all kinds of social needs of millions of citizens around the world, immediately assigning a vital role to the social economy. In the private sector, the strategies are oriented towards the return on investment, while the public sector seeks, at least, a value for the money spent. In recent years, new views on the economy have created innovative instruments with the aim of maximizing the quality of life and the well-being of citizens and promoting the increasingly threatened environmental sustainability. This is where the impact economy a mechanism designed to capture value through the combination of financial, social and environmental returns falls into place. This work does not intend to make a conceptual comparison between the social economy and the impact economy; nor does it analyze all the traditional sources of financing of the social economy. Two perspectives were the starting point for the work: the effective difficulty of countless organizations in the tertiary sector in obtaining funding and the emergence of new instruments capable of generating funds oriented towards development and social causes. In the third chapter, the concepts of economy and impact investment are described, including origin and main characteristics. In the fourth chapter a brief case study is presented, describing the mission and amounts in real impact investment initiatives. It should be noted that economics and impact investing are not recurrent themes in the academic environment, with limited literature available. In particular, the terms social economy, tertiary sector and solidarity economy are often used at random and can take on different meanings in different geographies. As a terminology, it was decided to assume the one presented by Moulaert and Ailenei the social economy as a set of activities aimed at mobilizing the necessary resources not covered by profit oriented institutions or by government institutions in their strictest sense, for the satisfaction human needs (Moulaert & Ailenei, 2005). The social economy can be defined in several ways and there is an ongoing debate about the content of some of these definitions as well as the scope of what should be considered. One definition is that the social economy includes organizations that are animated by the principle of reciprocity in pursuing mutual economic or social goals, usually through social control of capital. This definition would include cooperatives, credit unions, voluntary and non-profit organizations, charities and foundations, service associations, community businesses and social enterprises that use market mechanisms to achieve explicit social objectives. That is, it would include profit oriented companies, in which these companies share surpluses and benefits with members (and/or with the community in general) in a collective ownership structure (for example, a cooperative). This definition would not include non-profit and voluntary organizations that rely entirely on donations or grants (although some include such organizations in their definitions of the social economy). A similar definition describes the social economy as collectively owned companies (cooperatives, non-profit and mutual organizations) that use market-oriented production and the sale of goods or services to develop a social mission (Neamtan & Anderson, 2010). The social economy is essentially made up of voluntary, non-profit and cooperative sectors that are formally independent from the state. The sector, therefore, presents itself as a field of action distinct from the private sector, whose objective is profit, and the State, however, should be defined and analyzed as it interrelates with these two. However, development, initiatives, entrepreneurship, innovation and the markets themselves (including finance) evolve very quickly, as well as the intersection between them, creating greater complexity but also more opportunities. An inclusive view of activities related to the social economy will also allow us to analyze how the new currents of business management that do not define profit as a priority in their development strategies and policies, but intend to put human and sustainability factors at the top of these policies can create new opportunities and dynamics in a sector with high global recognition. Social sector organizations have the ability to impact nations economically, environmentally and socially, solving the most sensitive problems through the supply of their innovative services and products. However, in order to present effective, efficient, innovative and quality services in response to their objectives, they need to have sufficient and sustainable funding (Sauti, 2019). Figure 1 represents the overview of the financing of social sector organizations: Figure 1: Overview of the financing of social sector organizations Source: the Future of Funding for Social Enterprises. At the same time, the sector also presents great opportunities for future development. According to the Monitor Institute 2009 report, despite the numerous challenges faced by the sector, there are a number of opportunities that allow for an optimistic perspective, namely (Monitor, 2009): a) Increased interest on the part of capital providers; b) Greater recognition of the need for effective solutions to social and environmental challenges; c) the constant record of successes obtained with new instruments so far; d) A set of new talents interested in the sector; e) Creation of new sources of financing for social businesses. These five opportunities represent, according to Chong and Kleeman (2001) good reasons to be optimistic about the future financing of social organizations (Chong & Kleemann, 2011, p. At the same time that profit oriented investments aimed at generating social and environmental good are being transferred from activist investors to the core of the main financial institutions (Monitor, 2009). In short, it is important to highlight, on the one hand, the inclusive view of the social economy and, on the other hand, the real need for the social economy to find new forms of financing. In order to better understand the context in which the impact economy emerges, it is important to go back a little in time and review some historical landmarks, understand the main characteristics as well as the perspectives of several specialists. The Industrial Revolution is considered one of the most important developments in human history; the transition from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy radically changed the way people lived and worked, created new markets, created organic demand and provided exponential growth. That is why industrialization is considered to have triggered the first consistent and sustained increase in the average standard of living. However, this development was not uniform and had also many negative consequences.

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The more baptisms there were, the less they were written about, and soon they became part of the everyday life of the Ambo con gregations. Thus, interviews were also needed to fill this gap in the writ ten research material. There appeared to be two methods to choose between, of which the latter was chosen. First, one could have interviewed a large number of ordinary name-givers all over the Ambo area with the assist ance of a well-planned questionnaire. With this approach, the research would have been as close to the actual name-givers as possible. However, this method was not chosen, primarily because such interviews would have been too la borious to carry out. The interviews should also have been done in the Ambo languages with an interpreter. The second method, which was eventually chosen, was to interview a limited number of people who were experts on name-giving in Ambo society, i. However, these people were not interviewed as experts only, but also as ordinary name givers, i. Beside these Ambo in formants, some Finnish missionaries were also interviewed for this study. The anthropological linguist, how ever, while he may share these linguistic concerns, tends to add a somewhat differ ent dimension. He is more interested in language as a phenomenon within cul tures, to strive to understand the intricate problems of the ways in which language and culture relate to each other. The oldest parish register, dating back to the late 14th cen tury, was found in Gemona, Italy. Typically, they have offered brief descriptions of naming systems at a given point in time, and presented rough typologies for names. Research on Namibian place names has also been done by Moritz (1983), Nienaber and Raper (Nienaber & Raper 1977, 1980; Raper 1978), among others. For the role of the Germans in the linguistic research of Kwanyama, see Dammann 1984 (p. About half of the material was translated by Emil Liljeblad himself, and the other half by Mrs. As the collection includes an alphabetical sub ject index, it was relatively easy to find the relevant material on name-giving in this massive collection. According to Rautanen, it took the Finns several years and a lot of effort to get to know the traditional reli gion of the Ambo people. In the African context, this material is claimed to be exceptional as it is so massive and covers such a long period of time. Unfortunately, it was impossible to utilise this more recent material for the name analysis in this study. De Klerk & Bosch 1995; Dickens 1985; Herbert & Bogatsu 1990; Herbert 1995; Koopman 1986; Suzman 1994). In some cases, it seems to be important to have interviewers who are from the research area and are thus known to the local people (Suzman 1994, p. Because of this phenomenon, per sonal names have been described as a mirror of the culture of the people (Essien 1986, p. However, before exploring the theories of cultural and onomastic change further, it is necessary to look at the concept of culture first. It seems that anthropological literature offers us a large number of definitions of culture. This is due to the fact that as cultures develop in many and varied environments, there are also many different cultures (Ayisi 1988, p. They are counterparts, just as the two faces of a sheet of paper (Kroeber 1948, p. There can be no human culture without a society, and no human society without a culture. Hence, culture is a phenomenon which the human species has and other social species. According to the classical definition of the 19th-century British an thropologist Edward Tylor (1974, p. It is what we learn 21 Personal Names and Cultural Change from other people and the past, and what we ourselves may add to. It is organic, but at the same time more than organic, as it exists beyond its human carriers and continues to exist after they have died. They think of culture as a mental map which is shared by a number of people and which guides them in their relation to their surroundings and other people. The symbols shared within any given group of humans are not random collections of customs, activities, etc. Rather, we discover that each culture tends to have a logic of its own that makes the various elements of the culture related and interdependent. In the early 20th century, they started to analyse cultural traits with respect to their function. As they saw it, cultural elements persist because of their function in society, not because they are relics of ancient times. In a sense, one might assume that most of them are at least partly true, even if their viewpoints may be limited. Historical Culture is social heritage, or tradition, that is passed on to fu ture generations. Functional Culture is the way humans solve problems of adapting to the environment or living together. Mental Culture is a complex of ideas, or learned habits, that inhibit impulses and distinguish people from animals. Symbolic Culture is based on arbitrarily assigned meanings that are shared by a society. In this study, the structural and functional aspects of culture will be em phasised. The anthroponymic system of the Ambo people is seen as a subsystem of the Ambo culture, and the various functions of personal names will be analysed not only in their linguistic, but also in their so ciocultural context. As all life is constantly changing, the diachronic perspective is most relevant in all research dealing with human cultures. In trying to find answers to this question, anthropolo gists have stressed both internal and external factors in their theories. In 1859 Charles Darwin presented his ideas on evolution in biology, and this became a central concept in anthropology. This unilinear evolution was seen as a result of similar independent inventions25 in dif ferent societies.

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The follicular the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid variant of papillary carcinoma has a similar behavior to gland is papillary carcinoma, which represents approxiclassic papillary carcinoma. Papillary carciTreatment of papillary carcinoma is thyroidectomy noma, a well-differentiated carcinoma, arises from thyas well as the removal of regional neck nodes by selecroid follicular cells. Women are affected two to three tive neck dissection when lymph nodes are involved. The advantages found in both lobes of the thyroid up to 80% of the of total thyroidectomy include a decreased recurrence time. A multifocal presentation is particularly common rate and the ability to use thyroglobulin and radioactive in patients with prior low-dose radiation therapy to the iodine scans for the diagnosis of recurrent disease postneck. In 40% of patients present with cervical or mediastinal addition, all patients with well-differentiated thyroid metastases at the time of the initial diagnosis. Despite carcinomas should be treated indefinitely with suppresthe high incidence of cervical metastases, their presence sive doses of L-thyroxine (levothyroxine). Follicular carcinoma, like papillary carcinoma, is another well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Medullary thyroid carcinoma originates from the parafolEven though papillary carcinoma is associated with a licular cells (C cells) of the thyroid. Approximately the 10-year survival rate is approximately 85% and the 75% of medullary carcinomas occur sporadically, but 25% 20-year survival rate is approximately 70%. The mean survival rate for ways and tends to spread to the lungs, liver, and bone. Histologically, follicular carcinoma can be difficult Regional lymph node involvement is common (50%). Approximately 70% of patients with Surgery is the only effective therapy for medullary carHurthle cell carcinoma present with intrathyroid disease cinoma. Before surgery, it is important to rule out a conalone, 20% with regional cervical lymph node metastasis, comitant pheochromocytoma. The treatment of central neck dissection are recommended for all patients Hurthle cell carcinoma is total thyroidectomy. An ipsilateral selective neck diswith regional metastases require selective neck dissection. Selective venous sampling of calinvade adjacent structures, including the trachea, the larcitonin can also be performed. Laparoscopy is the most ynx, the esophagus, the laryngeal nerves, and blood vessels. Surgical resection Invasive well-differentiated carcinomas are much more is recommended for select patients with identifiable likely to metastasize (up to 80%) and are associated with residual disease or palliation of locoregional recurrences higher mortality rates than noninvasive well-differentiated despite distant metastases. Its incidence is equal in men and women and patients typically are older than 65 years of Melanoma, lung carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and age. This disorder usually arises from a well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma are the most common neoplasms thyroid carcinoma. Histologically, this tumor has large may be difficult to differentiate from a primary thyroid numbers of mitoses and is seen in three main forms: neoplasm unless proper immunohistochemical staining spindle cell, giant cell, and small cell. Infrequently, localized anaplastic carcinomas can be cured with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. Neck hematoma can with Hashimoto thyroiditis have a 70-fold increased risk cause airway compromise and must be evacuated immeof thyroid lymphoma compared with that of the general diately. Thyroid lymphoma occurs approximately ipsilateral vocal cord paralysis and occurs in approxieight times more frequently in women than in men. Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve mean age of patients diagnosed with thyroid lymphoma injury can cause airway obstruction, which often is over 60 years. Hypoparathyroidism occurs in growing thyroid mass, neck swelling, hoarseness, neck less than 2% of patients who undergo total thyroidecpain, and dysphagia. Treatment for hypoparathyroidism requires majority of thyroid lymphomas and is often classified as supplemental calcium replacement therapy, with or histiocytic lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphomas removal of all parathyroid tissue is suspected, parathytend to occur in other locations and either invade or roid tissue can be autotransplanted into a muscle and metastasize to the thyroid gland. Contemporary management Treatment for thyroid lymphoma is primarily radiaof thyroid carcinoma. OtolarynCarcinoma of the thyroglossal duct is typically papillary gol Clin North Am. Both pairs of glands most common cause of hypercalcemia in nonhospitalized are formed during the fifth week of embryogenesis. Primary hyperparathyroidism, due superior glands arise from the fourth branchial pouch, to a parathyroid adenoma, is the most common of the and the inferior glands are derived from the third branparathyroid disorders. They subsequently detach from the pharthyroid disease is mostly seen in patients with renal disease. The superior parathyroid gland and the lateral lobe of the thyroid remain in close proximity as they migrate together during embryogenesis. Therefore, the superior parathyroid gland General Considerations may be directly embedded within the lateral lobe of the Primary hyperparathyroidism is most common in postthyroid gland. Occasionally, the superior parathyroid menopausal women, with a peak incidence in the third gland may be located in a retropharyngeal, retrolaryngeal, to fifth decades. Primary hyperparathyThe inferior parathyroid gland descends with the thyroidism can be attributed to a single parathyroid ademus and can exhibit variability in its final location. The inferior thyroid artery usually supplies both the Clinical Findings inferior and the superior parathyroid glands, but on occasion an anastomotic branch between the inferior and the Historically, renal disease and skeletal manifestations have superior thyroid artery supplies the superior parathyroid been the presenting problems of patients with primary gland. This modality is highly ism include the following categories: neurologic, renal, dependent on the experience of the individual performgastrointestinal, and cardiovascular. When these two modalities have been used together, chemical finding when evaluating patients for primary they have been reported to increase diagnostic sensitivity to hyperparathyroidism. Neurotoxicity has been reported with higher doses hypoalbuminemia can give the appearance of a normal of methylene blue in patients on selective reuptake inhibitotal calcium level, despite an elevated level of ionized tors. Nephrolithiasis, bone disease, and neuaccess to the implanted tissue if the patient requires a romuscular symptoms all respond very well to the surgireoperative procedure for recurrent or persistent hypercal removal of diseased parathyroid tissue. The main disadvantage of total paraonly patients with symptomatic hyperparathyroidism or thyroidectomy is the potential for permanent hypoparaextremely high calcium levels were considered to be good thyroidism if the transplanted gland tissue does not surgical candidates. The second approach is a subtotal parathythat all patients with either symptomatic or asymptomroidectomy with removal of three and one half of the atic hyperparathyroidism will benefit from surgery. Early parathyroid glands, leaving a portion of a parathyroid surgical intervention can not only alleviate symptoms, gland in situ. The advantage of this approach is that the but it can also prevent the potential future complications parathyroid tissue remains attached to its native blood of hyperparathyroidism and in most cases reverse some of supply. The operation is accomplished determine the adequacy of the parathyroid gland resecthrough a transverse incision in the lower neck. In addition, the indispensable in guiding the operative strategy during thyroid lobe on the side of the missing gland should be focused exploration parathyroid surgery. When the surgeon is ready to perform the likely, both double adenomas and multigland hyperplaautotransplantation, the specimen is removed from the sia must be considered.


  • May come and go
  • Walking in high grasses
  • Nortimil
  • The skin or mouth lesions change in appearance
  • Avoid alcohol and illegal drugs during pregnancy.
  • Distraction techniques
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A small trial comparing quinine with artesunate atovaquone-proguanil (n 39) for the treatment of falciparum malaria during the second or third trimesters of pregnancy found no serious adverse effects and no significant differences in birth weight, gestational age, congenital malformation rates, or in growth and developmental parameters of infants (McGready 2005). Quinine is a component of some analgesic compounds and of certain beverages, although in lower and apparently non embryotoxic doses. In pregnancy, quinine can be used for therapy of acute chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria. The potential risk for the fetus due to the therapy is much less than the hazards due to the severe maternal dis ease. Even though embryotoxic effects due to quinine in analgesic compounds are not to be expected, these agents should be avoided because they do not con form to good therapeutical practice. Halofantrine can provoke life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with cardiac disease, and in combination with other arrhythmogenic agents. Experience with the use of halofantrine in human pregnancy is too limited for a defined risk assessment. Halofantrine should only be used in those cases of severe falciparum malaria which cannot be effectively treated with better-studied and less toxic agents. In cases of predisposition to cardiac rhythm disturbances, other malaria drugs should definitely be selected. To evaluate fetal morphologic development, a detailed ultrasound examination can be considered after first-trimester exposure. Primaquine should not be used in pregnancy because of the potential risk of hemolytic effects in the fetus. However, there is no substantial evidence for a teratogenic poten 2 tial in humans (Philips-Howard 1996). Instead, it is recommended that weekly prophylaxis be continued in these cases, with 300mg chloroquine base, until delivery. Inadvertent pregnancy exposure during the first trimester requires neither termination of pregnancy nor invasive diagnostic procedures. These compounds combine rapid blood schizonticide activity with a wide therapeutic index. Recommended artimisin-based combinations are artemether plus lumefantrine, artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine, arte sunate plus amodiaquine, and artesunate plus mefloquine. Very limited experience with artemisinin use in the second and third trimesters did not demonstrate any adverse effects on the chil dren (Philips-Howard 1996). In a prospective treatment study, arte sunate (n 528) or artemether (n 11) was used to treat 539 episodes of acute P. Birth outcomes were not significantly different from community rates for abortion, stillbirth, congenital abnormality, or mean duration of gestation. An earlier report from the same group on 83 women treated with artemisinin derivatives appears to be a subset of the more recent publication (McGready 2001B, 1998). In Gambia, a total of 287 pregnant women were exposed to artesunate plus sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine during a mass drug administra tion, and no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome was noted, comparing the exposed to the non-exposed pregnancies; 35 women were exposed in the first trimester (Deen 2001). In a small study (n 28), no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome was found after the use of artemether for the treatment of falciparum malaria in the second or third trimester of pregnancy (Adam 2004A). However, first-trimester experience is still too lim ited for a well-grounded risk assessment. During first trimester, artemisinin deriva tives should only be used if there is no safe and effective alternative. Inadvertent use of these antimalarials during the first trimester does not require termination of pregnancy. To evaluate fetal morphologic development, a detailed ultrasound examination can be considered after first-trimester exposure to artemisinin derivatives. In some regions, the combination of chloroquine plus pyrimethamine or doxycycline has proven effective. Clindamycin combined with quinine is used to treat multidrug-resistant malaria in pregnancy in some areas (Alecrim 2000). A recent trial compar ing quinine-clindamycine (n 64) with artesunate (n 65) for the treatment of falciparum malaria during the second or third trimester of pregnancy found no serious adverse effects, no increase in still births or congenital malformations above expected rates, and no negative impact on child development (McGready 2001A). To date, there is no indication for specific teratogenic effects (review by Thomas 2004). Severe side effects such as toxic hepatitis and fatal agranulocy tosis were attributed to the use of amodiaquine as prophylaxis. This and increasing drug resistance precludes its use for prophylaxis, but it is used therapeutically (Alecrim 2000). In a recent study, 900 pregnant women with a gestational age of 16 weeks or more and P. The authors concluded that amodiaquine alone or in combination with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, although 2. There was no significant differ ence with respect to the rates of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, stillbirth, and birth defects. However, considering the methodological limitations of the study and the limited experience with first-trimester 2 exposure, these results do not rule out embryotoxic effects. Used in combination with proguanil, it seems to be very effective against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum as prophylaxis and treatment. As yet, there is very little documented experience of the use of this combination in human pregnancy. A small trial comparing quinine with artesunate atovaquone-proguanil (n 39) for the treatment of falciparum malaria during the second or third trimester of pregnancy found no significant differences in birth weight or gestational age, the congenital malformations rates, or the growth and developmental parameters of infants (McGready 2005). In a small study, no increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome was noted after the use of atovaquone proguanil for the treatment of falciparum malaria in 22 third-trimester pregnant women; the pharmacokinetics of atovaquone appeared to be influenced by the pregnancy status (Na-Bangchang 2005). Lumefantrine is used in combination with artemether in the treatment of malaria disease. The antimalarial agents in this section are reserve drugs for the treatment of malaria. Doxycycline should not be used after the fif teenth week of pregnancy (see tetracyclines). It should be considered as a second-choice drug in pregnancy; safer antimalarials are preferred. Atovaquone should only be used in pregnancy if there is no safe and effec tive alternative for the treatment of acute multidrug-resistant malaria. Inadvertent use of these antimalarials does not require termination of preg nancy. To evaluate fetal morphologic development, a detailed ultrasound examination can be considered after first trimester exposure to atovaquone. Transmission and infection are felt to be the same as in the non pregnant individual, and pregnancy does not seem to influence the course of the disease (Laibl 2005, Tripathy 2002, Espinal 1996). Therefore, treatment should always consist of at least two, but usually three or more, drugs. A major cause of tuberculosis resistance and treatment failure is medication non-compliance. Because of the seriousness of tuberculosis in pregnancy, the importance of daily intake should be emphasized and this should be supervised if necessary. An increased rate of malformations, as mentioned in ear lier publications, has not been confirmed. Isoniazid is the drug of choice for prophylaxis and treatment of tuberculosis in pregnancy. Until now, no reports in the literature have con firmed this fear; the risk of congenital malformations seems not to be increased. As rifampicin influences vitamin K synthesis and is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic complications in the mother as well as in the newborn, prophylactic administration of vitamin K to the mother and the neonate is advised. Rifampicin is a drug of choice for the treatment of tuberculosis during pregnancy. When used near term, prophylactic vitamin K should be administered to the mother and neonate to prevent hemorrhagic complications (see vitamin K, Chapter 2. There are no reports indicating that ethambutol can cause ocular toxicity in the fetus, as it does in adults when given in higher doses. Fetal ototoxicity is documented, and use during pregnancy is contraindicated (see section 2. Other aminoglycosides, used as second-line drugs in antitubercu lous treatment (kanamycin, amikacin, and the newer capre omycin), possibly share the same ototoxic potential, and they should be avoided during pregnancy (Shin 2003, Brost 1997). Streptomycin (a first-line drug in the non-pregnant patient) and kanamycin, amikacin, and capreomycin (second-line drugs) are contraindicated during pregnancy because of their ototoxic properties. Inadvertent use does not require termination of pregnancy or invasive diag nostic procedures, but hearing tests should be performed after birth.

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At conferences or conference sessions I have attended for practicing consumer researchers, video excerpts are exceedingly common parts of session presentations. This is not to say that these integrations are necessarily the models we should follow. Yet it still seems that we, as researchers, (re)presenters and consumers of ethnographic research, need to gain a deeper appreciation of the epistemological, cultural and practical intricacies involved in moving imagery. Just as scholars have made us aware of ways written ethnographic accounts are created documents with attention to word choice, inclusion, elisions, rhetoric and so on (in much the same way as any novel, poem or 382 Handbook of qualitative research methods in marketing chapter in this volume does), so we need to do for video. We need to be aware of these as created documents and we need to appreciate their semiotic grammars. We also need to be able to incorporate them into our work for the value they hold as vehicles of phenom enological understanding. As viewers and consumers of ethnographic research, we need to appreciate the implicit cultural assumptions and practices that we are bringing to bear. Cliord, James and George Marcus (eds) (1986), Writing Culture, Berkeley: University of California Press. Corbin, Alain (1988), the Foul and the Fragrant, Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Crawford, Peter and Sigurjon Hafsteinsson (eds) (1996), the Constructions of the Viewer, Hojbjerg, Denmark: Intervention Press. Pine, Joseph (1999), the Experience Economy, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Stoller, Paul (1997), Sensuous Scholarship, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Lowrey and Suraj Commuri Imagine if researchers interested in studying consumption and marketing-related phe nomena could do so at only one point in time. Simply put, marketing researchers must be able to study phe nomena both over time (during extended, continuous periods so the lifeworlds of consumers, practitioners and/or marketing organizations can be understood) and across time (at dierent points in time, even those occurring before a study begins). In this chapter we examine the longitudinal and retrospective qualitative techniques that marketing researchers can use when they wish to generate thick descriptions of human behavior. We begin by dening and comparing these research approaches, and describe their potential contributions and limitations. We then examine how studies of marketing-related phenomena have incorporated components of longitudinal qualitative research, and how they have used (or can use) retrospective marketing techniques. Longitudinal versus retrospective approaches Denition(s) of longitudinal research Achieving consensus with regard to what longitudinal qualitative research truly entails is probably elusive, because even in disciplines such as anthropology, sociology and educa tion, where it is a mainstay, the criteria as to what makes a research project longitudinal are often vague. Although all disciplines imply that longitudinal research occurs over a span of time, Saldana (2003) notes that he could nd no agreement as to the minimum span required for a eld immersion to be considered longitudinal. One reason for such a disparate range is that some ethnographers advocate allowing the research design to evolve to meet the demands of the research questions and context being explored. Events that cannot be described because they have yet to emerge certainly cannot be tied to a particular date. In contrast, a general denition of retrospective research is less problematic, because this method does not require debate over a criterion of prolonged eld immersion. Specically, retrospective research is that which enables the researcher to capture time infused primary data, by allowing and encouraging participants to tap into one or multi ple earlier time periods in their lives post hoc. Because scholars do not want to be limited to the retrospective perspectives available only through secondary data sources such as oral histories, diaries, transaction histories, company data or web-logs, they use a variety of creative retrospective techniques that involve informants (some of which are detailed later in this chapter). Comparison of longitudinal and retrospective methods Whether one adopts a longitudinal or retrospective approach, both hold the belief that time is ontologically relevant and epistemologically accessible. But thereafter, these two approaches substantively diverge, especially with regard to the conceptualizations of time they embrace and explore. Kant, Husserl and, more recently, Ricoeur elaborate on the dis tinctions between the two essential notions of time (see Ricoeur, 1985, for a comprehensive discussion). Put simply, cosmological time posits that time is linear and can be measured in terms of minutes and hours.

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But as Brahms had one rule for others and a different rule for himself in relation to arpeggiata, the possibility that Chopin used arpeggiata in playing his own works cannot be ruled out. We are delivered from any exaggeration or false pathos by the simplicity of his poetic enthusiasm and moderation. To play Chopin without any rules, without rubato, veiling his accents, we hear not Chopin, but his caricature. Chopin disclaimed over-sensitivity as false, and as a man educated in the music of Bach and Mozart, he could never seek capricious or exaggerated tempi. He would not stand for anything that could destroy the basic outlines of a composition, and, therefore, took care that students should not arbitrarily change tempi. D flat major Fantaisies Fantaisie F minor opus 49 Polonaise-Fantaisie A flat major Impromptus 1. E major Opus posth 72 E minor Published posthumously C sharp minor (1830) C minor (1837) Polonaises Opus 26 1. D minor Prelude C sharp minor opus 45 Prelude Aflat major published posthumously Scherzos 1. D flat major E minor, E major etc published posthumously Miscellaneous Bolero C major opus 19 Tarantelle A flat major opus 43 Allegro de Concert A major opus 46 Berceuse D flat major opus 57 Barcarolle F sharp major opus 60 Piano with orchestra Piano concerto no. For example, in C major, C sharp, D flat, D sharp, E flat, F sharp, G flat, G sharp, A flat, A sharp and B flat all represent chromatic pitches. For a chromatic pitch to function chromatically, however, it must resolve in a logical way to a diatonic pitch, otherwise the overload of colour undermines the integrity of the key and begins to suggest a modulation to a different key or a non-diatonic modality. As a general rule, chromatically raised tones resolve upwards while chromatically lowered ones resolve downwards. Hence chromatically introduced A sharp usually goes to B while E flat would have to go to D. In nineteenth century music there can be no pitches without chords, which more fully suggest harmony. In C major, chromatic chords include all those outside the diatonic framework, including C minor, C sharp major and minor, D major, E flat major and minor, E major, F minor, F sharp major and minor, G minor, A flat major and minor, A major, B flat major and minor, and B major and minor. The way these chords are used in nineteenth century music is not arbitrary and each chord has its own specific quality and compositional implications. Most obviously the level of diatonicism, or its displacement around the cycle of fifths, of a chromatic chord makes it sound more or less nearly related to the tonic. Finally, keys which may provide large scale harmonic structure in nineteenth century music may also be chromatic. Composers such as Beethoven, and to an even greater extent Schubert, are some of the first composers to explore this. Historically, the prolongation of chromatic pitches, chords and keys inceasingly undermining a clear diatonic harmonic basis, led it in many directions. Wagner and Strauss pushed to the extreme the tension of prolonging chromatic pitches, whereas other 80 composers, such as Debussy, overstep the boundary and move towards modality. Composers of the Second Viennese School, such as Schoenberg, Berg and Webern, completely eradicate any diatonic basis by means of atonal and dodecaphonic (twelve tone serialism) harmony, and can thus be said to have moved through and beyond chromaticism. The fingering for the chromatic scale involves the third finger in addition to the thumb and second finger. The right hand chromatic scale for one octave from C is 1313123131312, from D flat is 3131231313123 and from B flat is 3123131231313. The classical style of simplicity, order, balance, restraint, elegance and naturalness was an outgrowth of the European enlightenment. He is best known for his piano sonatas and his piano studies, Gradus ad Parnassum. Clementi was born in Rome on 23 January 1752, the first of seven children, to Nicolo Clementi (1720-1789), a silversmith, and Magdalena, nee Kaiser. By the age of thirteen he had secured a post as organist at his home church of St Lorenzo in Damaso. In return for his education he was expected to provide musical entertainment at the manor. It was here that he spent the next seven years in study and practice at the harpsichord. The audience was impressed with his playing and thus began one of the most successful concert careers in 81 history. In 1774 Clementi was freed from his obligations to Sir Peter Beckford and he moved to London. His fame and popularity increased and he was regarded as the greatest piano virtuoso of the day. In 1781 Clementi started a European tour and travelled to France, Germany and Austria. On 24 December 1781, in the Viennese court, each performer was called upon to improvise and to perform selections from his own compositions. Clementi stayed in England for twenty years from 1782, playing the piano conducting and teaching. Two of his celebrated pupils were Johann Baptist Cramer and the Irishman John Field who in turn influenced Chopin. Clementi also began manufacturing pianos but in 1807 his factory was destroyed by fire. Beethoven in later life composed chamber music specifically for the British market because his publisher was based there. In 1810 Clementi stopped giving concerts in order to devote all his time to composition and piano making. In 1830 Clementi moved to live outside 82 Lichfield and spent his final years in Evesham. After the success of his Sonatas opus 36, some of the earlier ones were re-issued as sonatinas and are used to this day as teaching pieces. Clementi also wrote a great deal of other music including a number of slightly unfinished symphonies.


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