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Environmental Sustainability of Canadian Agriculture 1005 (Agri-Environmental Indicator Report Series No. Green planet blues: critical perspectives on global environmental politics (5th Editio). Organically grown crops do not a cropping system make and nor can organic agriculture nearly feed the world. Convention Concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries (1989). Stockholm, Rio, Johannesburg Brazil and the Three United Nations Conferences on the Environment. Assessing the degrowth discourse: A review and analysis of academic degrowth policy proposals. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection. Land degradation in South Africa: Conventional views, changing paradigms and a tradition of soil conservation. Forum Biodiversity monitoring in developing countries: what are we trying to achieve Property rights and access management in the small boat fishery: A case study from southwest Nova Scotia. Atlantic fisheries and coastal communities: Fisheries decision-making case studies. The Silent Revolution: A New Perspective on the Emergence of Commons, Guilds, and Other Forms of Corporate Collective Action in Western Europe. Peasants Speak the Via Campesina: Consolidating an International Peasant and Farm Movement. Using Indigenous Knowledge to Improve Agriculture and Natural Resource Management. Combining indigenous and scientific knowledge to improve agriculture and natural resource management in Latin America. Human-Wildlife Conflict worldwide: collection of case studies, analysis of management strategies and good practices. Effects of urban sprawl on agricultural land: a case study of Kahramanmaras, Turkey. Impact of Different Front-of-Pack Nutrition Labels on Consumer Purchasing Intentions. Managing the mismatches to provide ecosystem services for human well-being: a conceptual framework for understanding the New Commons. The Local Perception of Tropical Deforestation and its Relation to Conservation Policies in Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Bringing the Moral Economy back in to the Study of 21st-Century Transnational Peasant Movements. Common Pool Resources, Buffer Zones, and Jointly Owned Territories: Hunter Gatherer Land and Resource Tenure in Fort Irwin, Southeastern California. The Economics of Land Degradation in Africa: Benefits of Action Outweigh the Costs. The mechanistic basis of changes in community assembly in relation to anthropogenic disturbance and productivity. Environmental conflict resolution: Evaluating performance outcomes and contributing factors. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water Regulations and Standards Office of Wetlands Protection. Missing ecology: integrating ecological perspectives with the social-ecological system framework. Neoliberal environmentality: Towards a poststructuralist political ecology of the conservation debate. Submission to the Convention on Biological Diversity relating to innovative financial mechanisms and the rights of indigenous peoples and local communities. Public concerns about transboundary haze: A comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. Dynamic and static views of succession: Testing the descriptive power of the chronosequence approach. The sustainability of changes in agricultural technology: the carbon, economic and labour implications of mechanisation and synthetic fertiliser use. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s. A room with a viewpoint: Using social norms to motivate environmental conservation in hotels. Conservation Agriculture: Making Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Real in Europe. Contested Regimes in the International Political Economy: Global Regulation of Genetic Resources and the Internationalization of the State. Conservation Agriculture and Soil Carbon Sequestration: Between Myth and Farmer Reality. Drivers of Change in Socio-Ecological Production Landscapes: Implications for Better Management. Tensiones, contradicciones y oportunidades de la dimension ambiental del Buen Vivir. Recovery of plant communities after ecological restoration of forestry-drained peatlands. The effects of long-term drainage and subsequent restoration on water table level and pore water chemistry in boreal peatlands. Extinction debt and species credit in boreal forests: modelling the consequences of different approaches to biodiversity conservation. Coordinated monitoring of New Zealand wetlands, Phase 2, Goal 2: Maori environmental performance indicators for wetland condition and trend. Challenge of International Environmental Management: A Critique of the United Nations Environment Programme, The. Accounting methods for international land-related leakage and distant deforestation drivers. Toxic effects of pesticide mixtures at a molecular level: Their relevance to human health. Wildlife conflict resolution: a review of problems, solutions and regulation in England.

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In hoofdstuk 2 hebben we een retrospecteve studie uitgevoerd om de prevalente en de ernst the bepalen van koude intolerante bij patenten met een fractuur in de hand. Deze specifeke patentengroep was van belang voor ons omdat bij hen geen grote zenuwen of bloedvaten beschadigd waren. Patenten met daarnaast ook een letsel aan een zenuw of bloedvat werden dan ook uitgesloten voor de studie. Dit geef aan dat koude intolerante niet alleen een belangrijk probleem is voor patenten na een fractuur in de hand, maar ook dat postraumatsche koude intolerante kan ontstaan zonder de aanwezigheid van een letsel aan een van de grote zenuwen of bloedvaten van de hand. Deel 1 van dit proefschrif werd opgezet om the onderzoeken of beschadiging van een bloedvat de oorzaak is van koude intolerante. In hoofdstuk 3 hebben we de opwarmingspatronen van het aangedane gebied bij patenten met koude intolerante onderzocht in vergelijking met de niet aangedane hand en vergeleken met controle patenten zonder koude intolerante. Gemiddeld 30 maanden na herstel van een fractuur in de hand hebben we een koude stress test uitgevoerd. De temperatuur werd gemeten tjdens de opwarmingsfase door gebruik the maken van een infrarood videothermografsche camera. We hebben geen signifcante verschillen gevonden in de patronen van opwarming tussen de beschadigde en niet beschadigde hand van de patenten groep. Ook bij de vergelijking van de patronen van opwarming tussen de dominante en de niet dominante hand bij patenten met koude intolerante en controle patenten werden geen signifcante verschillen gevonden. De resultaten van hoofdstuk 3 lieten geen verband zien tussen de ernst van koude intolerante en de patronen van opwarming na het testen met koude stress test. Dit suggereert dat de thermoregulate van de handen bij patenten met koude intolerante niet primair verantwoordelijk is voor de klachten. Echter, op basis hiervan kan een vasculaire oorzaak van koude intolerante niet worden uitgesloten. Een trauma van de bovenste extremiteit Samenvatng 147 met een fractuur in de hand is immers complex en leidt tot veel weefselschade. De complexiteit van een trauma aan de bovenste extremiteiten met een hand fractuur leidt tot dusdanig veel weefselschade, dat het onmogelijk is om een vasculaire oorzaak van koude intolerante uit the sluiten. Daarom is gekozen voor een vervolgonderzoek naar de oorsprong van koude intolerante met proefdieren. Het dieronderzoek in hoofdstuk 4 werd opgezet om de relate the onderzoeken tussen een mogelijk verstoorde thermoregulate en koude intolerante. Een koude stress test werd uitgevoerd om de aanwezigheid van koude intolerante the testen tevens werd er een Von Frey test uitgevoerd om mechanische allodynie the testen. De opwarmingspatronen werden gemeten door middel van thermokoppels die werden aangebracht aan de dorsale zijde van de achterpoot. Alle metngen werden preoperatef en vervolgens 3, 6 en 9 weken postoperatef uitgevoerd. Ondanks het feit dat na het perifere zenuwletsel deze raten koude intolerante ontwikkelden, toonden de resultaten van deze studie aan dat het patroon van opwarming niet veranderde, waaruit we kunnen concluderen dat perifere thermoregulate nog steeds intact kan zijn na een perifeer zenuwletsel in een rat model. Het wordt algemeen beschouwd als een beschermend mechanisme tegen lokaal koudeletsel bij koude situates, waarbij de kern van het lichaam altjd het langst warm blijf, zonder dat er schade ontstaat aan de ledematen. Wederom werd koude intolerante gevonden bij het gebruik van een koude plaat en mechanische allodynia met de Von Frey test. Hoofdstuk 6 werd geschreven als antwoord op een gepubliceerd artkel met betrekking tot het gebruik van de term cold induced vasodilataton. Deel 2 van dit proefschrif werd opgezet om the onderzoeken of een neurale origine de basis is voor de pathophysiologie van koude intolerante. In Hoofdstuk 7 hebben we een kwanttatef sensorische test gebruikt om the onderzoeken of neurale disregulate het belangrijkste mechanisme is van koude intolerante. In de studie namen 15 gezonde controles en 32 patenten met koude intolerante deel. Elf patenten hadden een zenuwletsel van de nervus medianus of ulnaris, vijfien patenten een amputate van een of meerdere vingers en zes patenten een fractuur in de hand. Alle patenten en een controle groep werden onderworpen aan een kwanttateve sensorische test. Patenten met koude intolerante bleken signifcant verschillend ten opzichte van de gezonde controle groep en zowel de A-delta en C vezels waren verstoord bij patenten met koude intolerante. Bij het vergelijken van de drie patentengroepen, zagen we dat de afwijkingen niet systematsch verschillend waren tussen de drie groepen. Deze studie toonde aan dat het meest distale gedeelte van het zenuwstelsel verstoord is bij patenten met koude intolerante, wat overeenkomt met de hypothese dat de oorzaak van koude intolerante een neurale origine heef. Het doel van Hoofdstuk 8 was om the testen of patenten met koude intolerante verschillen van anderen op het gebied van inter-persoonlijke variate in pijnmodulate. In deze studie hebben we gebruik gemaakt van het verschijnsel dat pijn ergens op het lichaam de pijnsensate op een ander Samenvatng 149 gedeelte van het lichaam remt. Dit pijn modulerend systeem wordt in de literatuur beschreven als mede verklarend voor het ontstaan van pijnsyndromen. Van de 24 patenten met koude intolerante hadden 11 een zenuwletsel en 13 een amputate van een of meerdere vingers. Om het pijn modulerend systeem the kwantfceren werd de pijndrempel voor mechanische druk gemeten in het betrokken gebied als basismetng. De efectviteit van het pijn modulerend systeem echter, was signifcant lager bij patenten in vergelijking met de controles. Dit komt overeen met resultaten bij andere chronische pijnsyndromen en toont aan dat het pijn modulerend systeem bij patenten met koude intolerante ontregeld is. Dit zou kunnen wijzen op een veranderd efect ten aanzien van reactes van patenten op verschillende types pijn medicate. In Hoofdstuk 9 werden de belangrijkste resultaten van de vooorgaande hoofdstukken en hun implicates besproken. Conclusies werden getrokken, onderzoeksvragen werden beantwoord, het hoofddoel geevalueerd en de mogelijkheden van toekomstg onderzoek gedeeld. List of publicatons 151 List of Publications Prevalence and severity of cold intolerance in patents afer hand fracture; E. Selles: (under review) Am J Hand Surgery Disordered conditoned pain modulaton system in patents with postraumatc cold intolerance; E. Walbeehm: accepted Journal of Plastc, Reconstructve & Aesthetc Surgery Ultrasound-guided needle positoning for near nerve electromyography of the gastrocnemius muscle in a rat model Accepted Journal of Neurosurgery T. Roterdam Advanced Mutple Plate: A novel universal device to measure objectvely cold hyperalgesia and allodynia in freely behaving neuropathic pain rats. Walbeehm PhD training Year Workload (Hours) Teaching General courses Principles of Research in Medicine and Epidemiology 2010 33 hrs Introducton to Data-analysis 2010 33 hrs Biomedical English Writng 2010 12 hrs Specifc courses Microsurgery; Mrs. Geachte Professor Hovius, prof, profesor, Dank voor het gevoel van vertrouwen dat u mij altjd heef gegeven. Dit vertrouwen heef mij gesterkt in het uitvoeren van onderzoek, schrijven van artkelen en het organiseren van congressen. In de afgelopen jaren heb ik genoten van de discussies die we met elkaar hebben gehad. Werken met statstek, gestructureerd schrijven, de helikopterview aannemen bij discussies, relatveren en pragmatsch problemen oplossen zijn een aantal lessen die je mij hebt geleerd. Je bent een erg pretge en toegankelijke copromotor waar ik met veel plezier mee heb gewerkt. Walbeehm, beste Erik Jouw enthousiasme, voor zowel de wetenschap als de kliniek is in de afgelopen jaren aanstekelijk geweest. Huygen, Graag wil ik u danken voor de pretge samenwerking met u en met uw afdeling. Dit heef zich ontwikkeld in een aantal mooie wetenschappelijke publicates en de organisate van een succesvol congres. Daanen, De snelle en accurate wijze waarop u manuscripten nakeek is bewonderenswaardig. Veel dank voor de samenwerking en uw bereidheid plaats the nemen in de kleine commissie. Sjoerd Niehof, Emmy van Bodegraven, beste Sjoerd en Emmy Sjoerd; ik heb enorm veel respect voor jouw praktsch inzicht.

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Diminished Interest or Q: When and how often does the plaintiff experience a diminished interest or Pleasure pleasure in activities Interest or Q: Does the plaintiff have a history of diminished interest or pleasure in activities Pleasure (continued) Q: Does the plaintiff have a history of any medical or psychological conditions that may cause a markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities S/he may express this through procrastination, dawdling, stubbornness, intentional inefficiency, and forgetfulness. A borderline personality disorder is characterized by unstable interpersonal Pleasure relationships, behavior, mood, and self-image. The plaintiff may experience (continued) temporary mood shifts including depression, irritability, and anxiety. Associated symptoms may include dizziness, depression, obsessive rumination, somatic concerns, anxiety, fear of going insane, and difficulty with a sense of time and recall (reference 7, p. Alcohol intoxication may cause aggressiveness, impaired judgment and attention, irritability, euphoria, depression, emotional lability, and impaired social or occupational functioning. Appetite (continued) Q: Does the plaintiff have a history of any medical or psychological conditions that may cause a significant change in weight or appetite Bulimia nervosa features recurrent episodes of binge eating, a rapid consumption of a large amount of food in a discrete period of time. The plaintiff will have feelings of lack of control over eating and use self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, strict dieting or fasting, or vigorous exercise in order to prevent weight gain. Associated symptoms may include depressive moods and self-deprecating Weight or thoughts. S/he may also have chronic feelings of emptiness or boredom, inappropriate anger, binge eating, and recurrent suicidal thoughts. Characteristic symptoms include tachycardia, increased appetite, dry mouth, euphoria, anxiety, sensation of slowed time, impaired judgment, and social withdrawal. While the plaintiff is extremely active, s/he is often fragmented and unable to finish projects. The plaintiff may experience an appetite disturbance, weight change, sleep Weight or disturbance, psychomotor agitation or retardation, decreased energy and emotional Appetite capacity, feelings of worthlessness, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and (continued) recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. Masked depression is a depressive state in which the dysphoric mood is covered or masked by gastrointestinal problems, chronic pain, insomnia, weight loss, or other bodily complaints. Some of the characteristic physical signs include an increased appetite, weakness, buffalo hump, truncal and facial obesity, heightened facial color, and abdominal striae (stripes). The Kleine-Levin syndrome, occurring primarily in adolescent males, is characterized by episodes or excessive sleep and overeating, lasting up to several weeks. Dysthymic disorder is characterized by chronic depressive symptoms less severe than major depression. If the witness indicates the possibility of dysthymic disorder, see the section on dysthymic disorder for further questions. Mild nausea, vomiting, and weight or appetite change are common symptoms Appetite during the first four months of pregnancy. Symptoms may include sneezing, itching of the nose, a stuffy nose and postnasal drainage. The plaintiff with allergies generally feels ill or uncomfortable and may not be interested in eating. Rheumatoid arthritis is a progressive disease that causes long-lasting pain in the joints and muscles. Hyperthyroidism, or thyrotoxicosis, results from overproduction of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. These self-limited illnesses may include suicidal ideation, loss of appetite, libido, and fatigue. The symptoms appear within 24 hours after the cessation or reduction in the use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco, or nicotine gum. Hypersomnia Q: When and how often does the plaintiff have insomnia or hypersomnia Nightmares may occur frequently in the more susceptible plaintiff that is stressed, fatigued, or who has consumed alcohol. Rebound insomnia is a worsening of sleep following intermediate term use of drugs, such as: (reference 9, pp. The plaintiff associates going to bed with restlessness and wakefulness, rather than with sleep. The number of awakenings per night and the amount of time awake during the night increases gradually with age. The symptoms usually occur at night, disturbing sleep, or when the plaintiff is resting. Some plaintiffs experience disrupted sleep-wake patterns for a long time after the shift change. Frequently changing sleep-wake schedules causes sleep insomnia and daytime somnolence (drowsiness). Other behavioral symptoms may include euphoria, hypervigilance, reduced need to sleep, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, and impaired social or occupational functioning. If the witness indicates the possibility of dysthymic disorder, see the appropriate section for further questions. Symptoms include muscle tension, restlessness or feeling on edge or keyed up, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and irritability. Psychomotor Agitation, Q: When and how often does the plaintiff experience psychomotor agitation or Retardation retardation Q: Does the plaintiff have a history of psychomotor agitation or retardation before the injury in question Q: Does the plaintiff have a history of any medical or psychological conditions that may cause psychomotor agitation or retardation The obsessive-compulsive plaintiff has persistent unwanted and uncontrolled thoughts or impulses that may be characterized by violence, contamination, or doubt. Note: In addition to the obsessive-compulsive disorder, there is an obsessive compulsive personality disorder. The plaintiff may find it difficult to relax or forgive, and is argumentative when threatened by innocent remarks or events. Retardation Symptoms of amphetamine or similarly acting sympathomimetic drug consumption (continued) may include fighting, grandiosity, elation, hypervigilance, psychomotor agitation, impaired judgment, and impaired social or occupational functioning. Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic drug consumption can cause behavioral and Retardation physical changes. Behavioral symptoms may include disinhibition of sexual or (continued) aggressive impulses, mood lability, impaired judgment, and impaired social or occupational functioning. Physical symptoms may include slurred speech, incoordination, unsteady gait, psychomotor retardation, and impaired memory or attention span. Opioid intoxication is characterized by euphoria, flushing, itching skin, miosis, drowsiness, decreased respiratory rate and depth, hypotension, bradycardia, and decreased body temperature. While dependence on opioids is less common than on alcohol or tobacco, it has been estimated that fifteen percent of males and nine percent of females have used an opioid (nonmedical) during their lifetime. A bipolar disorder has a circular pattern of high and low emotional states (mania and depression). Retardation During major depressive episodes the plaintiff may be depressed for at least two (continued) weeks. The plaintiff may experience an appetite disturbance, weight change, sleep disturbance, psychomotor agitation or retardation, decreased energy and emotional capacity, feelings of worthlessness, difficulty thinking or concentrating, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide. The plaintiff may experience temporary mood shifts including depression, irritability, agitation, and anxiety. While taking the drugs, they may experience euphoria, severe mania, severe depression, delirium, paresthesia (abnormal tightness or tingling around a limb or trunk), insomnia, restlessness or agitation. As the disease Agitation, progresses, a depressed mood and psychomotor retardation may become severe. A generalized anxiety disorder is a persistent anxiety, worry and distress about two or more life circumstances for at least six months.

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It was thus argued that restoration should be understood as an investment rather than a direct cost for society (de Groot et al. It is important to allow the time needed to achieve restoration goals to avoid the premature perception of failure or non-achievability. For example, consumption and pollution put major pressures on biodiversity and have shown worsening trends, both past and projected (Tittensor et al. The global production and trading of goods to satisfy demand is also one of the main drivers of land degradation (Lambin & Meyfroidt, 2011a; Lenzen et al. One clear example is the case of increasing meat consumption and soy production as drivers of deforestation (see Figure 2. The consequences of local degradation processes can also have long-distance negative impacts on biodiversity and societies (Liu et al. In reaction, a directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (European Commission, 2009) was adopted to provide a transnational legal framework for dealing with these issues (Farber, 2011). An additional long-distance connection of land-use change is caused by the transition of developed countries from net forest losses to net forest gains (Meyfroidt et al. For instance, reforestation projects on productive land of the Mata Atlantica, in Brazil, could lead to the displacement of grazing pressures elsewhere (Latawiec et al. Likewise, strong leakages were observed when Vietnam implemented a reforestation policy and increased its forest cover at the expense of neighbouring countries, where deforestation increased in order to satisfy the domestic demand in timber products (Meyfroidt & Lambin, 2009). Nonetheless, one positive form of long-distance connection occurs when the benefits of restoration are not only felt locally, at the spatial scale of the site being restored, but have downstream positive effects at a larger scale (de Groot et al. Long-distance impacts caused by land degradation are hardly considered by national legal orders and even less by the international legal order. Thus, the legal concepts of land degradation and restoration are often constrained to local scales. This perception differs from the existing international legal order and its treaties and conventions for the protection of air and water quality, for example. Such a difference can be partially explained by the fact that land generally falls under state territory and national jurisdiction, despite its transnational characteristics. And despite the existence of general legal instruments, transboundary impacts caused by land degradation are often underestimated and not taken into account by the law (Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 1991; European Commission, 2010; Gray, 2000; Johnstone, 2013). Internationally, there is a lack of strong conceptual foundations for building effective international mechanisms. Hence the current status of land prevents the development of alternative and legitimate (Bodansky, 1999) forms of ecological governance (Camanho, 2009; Angus, 2007; Woolley, 2015) based on the legal implementation of the concept of ecological solidarity, for example (Naim-Gesbert, 2014; Thompson et al. Ecological solidarity (see Glossary) is a legal concept of French environmental law. It provides a step toward consolidating ecological and social interdependence in biodiversity policy. The idea is that in order to increase the efficiency of conservation measures, the surrounding landscape of the protected area must be integrated. Nonetheless, when countries share common concerns, the protection and sustainable management of land can become an international matter. The Alpine Convention (Dallinger, 1994), signed by the eight Alpine countries (Germany, Austria, France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia and Switzerland) illustrates this idea. Its purpose is to create a common framework to manage and preserve the alpine environment. The convention is based on nine protocols and at least five of them are related to land issues: (i) mountain farming; (ii) mountain forest; (iii) spatial planning and sustainable development; (iv) conservation of nature and countryside; and (v) the most directly land-related soil conservation protocol of 1995. Although the whole mechanism of the Alpine Convention is facing governance and implementation issues, it nevertheless demonstrates that land (and more specifically soils) can be managed at a supranational level. Within this framework, parties have shared their knowledge to elaborate an appropriate text (Balsiger, 2007; Simon, 2011). For instance, the Soil Protocol conveys the definition of soil given by the European Soil Charter of the Council of Europe, by the European Commission and by the German Soil Protection Act (see also Chapter 6, Section 6. Moreover, this example illustrates that, as these alpine countries share a mountain area with specific threats and ecosystems, they have an accurate perception of the consequences caused by land degradation (Desrousseaux, 2014). The progressive recognition of land as a scarce resource Soil protection, in itself, is perceived as a national matter. Land and soil are two different legal objects and only specific threats or types of land are internationally preserved: the threat of desertification, high interest wetlands and natural and agricultural landscapes. It refers to "existential threats for survival [of humankind] and requires extraordinary measures to face and cope with these concerns. Security concepts offer tools to analyse, interpret, and assess past actions and to request or legitimize present or future activities" (Brauch & Spring, 2009). As food or water are already considered security issues, the concept of soil security put soil issues at the same level of importance. For instance, while the right to water has been assigned a constitutional level of protection in most national legal orders (for the highest level possible, see Figure 2. Land and soil are frequently ambiguous in law, as they are not clearly separated or made distinguishable. Some institutions are aware of this situation and the European Commission, for instance, has expressively explained why soils should be differentiated from land. At a national level, and due to their territorial specificities, some countries have an accurate perception of the scarcity of land and have thus built strong legal frameworks in order to prevent land degradation. For instance, Article 75 of the Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation, specifies that "the Confederation shall lay down principles on spatial planning. These principles are binding on the Cantons and serve to ensure the appropriate and economic use of the land and its properly ordered settlement" (1999). In other words, Switzerland has an accurate perception of the scarcity of its land and proactively attempts to limit its urbanization. As a result, Switzerland is considered as one of the best performing countries of Europe to preserve land and associated food security (Dufourmantelle et al. Measuring ecosystem degradation first requires determining a baseline, relative to which the current state of an ecosystem is compared. For the particular purpose of assessing anthropogenic ecosystem degradation, an obvious reference is the natural state without any human modification (see 2. Restoration success is in practical terms easier to assess and monitor than assessing degradation, because here the expected ecosystem changes are in the future and can be monitored. However, in order to do this rigorously and scientifically, there is a need for well designed long-term monitoring programmes, following, for instance, the classical idea of the Before-After, Control-Impact design (Block et al.

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Asia Startle-induced disorga nization, hypersuggesti s Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences 101 bility, automatic obedience, and echo-praxia. Asia Dissociative states pro syndrome duced by a belief of being possession by a godess or evil spirit. Dance therapy: A therapeutic modality that uses body movement as a form of nonverbal expression to rehabilitate people with mental or physical dis orders. Daydreaming: the activity of engaging in fantasies or imaginative speculations during quiescent waking periods. Some research suggests that daydreaming may be instrumental in promoting positive mental health for the individual, perhaps through the clarification of goals and ambitions. Day hospital: A hospital setup in which a patient spends the day in the hospital and returns home at night. Day residue: Any element of a dream that is clearly derived from some event of the previous day. Deaggressification: the process by which infantile aggressive Energy (see also Aggression) loses its primitive, aggressive quality when the impulses to which it is attached participate in Sublimation. Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences 103 Death instinct: Freudian concept, also called Thanatos, of an unconscious drive toward dissolution and death, operating in opposition to the life instinct (Eros) see also instinct, Life instinct. Decay theory of memory: the theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not reacti vated; it appears to be more plausible for short term than long-term memory. In practice the term is most often applied to theories which apply mathematical models to human decision processes. Decompensation: the deterioration of existing defenses, leading to an exacerbation of pathologic behaviour. Decomposition: In psychiatry, the division of a person into separate personalities or identities, as seen in the paranoid schizophrenic who splits the per secutor into separate entities. Deductive reasoning: Reasoning from the general to the particular; drawing a conclusion that follows necessarily from certain premises. Defect: A lasting and irreversible impairment of any particular psychological function. The ubiquity of outcome into defect in the schizophrenic disorders is not supported by more recent research, not is its irreversibility. The function of defence is to protect the Ego and defences may be instigated by (a) Anxiety, due to a bad Conscience (Super-ego threats); or (b) realistic dangers. The concept of defence is usually stated in terms which imply that the human ego is beset by threats to this survival emanating from the Id, the super-ego and the outside world, and that is, therefore, perpetually on the defensive. But the concept is better regarded less negatively and taken to include all techniques used by the ego to master, control canalize and use forces which may lead to Neurosis. The concept also implies that neurosis is due to a Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences 105 failure of defence, according to this view the Inhibitions resulting from successful Repression are not neurotic symptoms. Since psychoanalysis holds that anxiety is a spur to development, some perhaps all, of the defences play a part in normal development and it is usually assumed that certain defences belong to specific stages of development. See also compensation, Conversion, Denial, Displacement, Dissociation, Idealization, Incorporation, Intellectualization, Introjection, Projection, Rationalization, Reaction formation, Regression Repression, Sublimation, Substitution, Symbolization, Undoing. Defensive emotion: Strong feeling that serves as a screen for a less acceptable feeling, one that would cause a person to experience anxiety if it appeared. For example expressing the emotion of anger is often more acceptable to a patient than expressing the fear that his anger covers up. Deficiency motive: A motivation that arises because of a perceived deficiency of some kind. In stimulus deprivation studies, some damaged perceptual functioning which was originally thought to result from cognitive deficits was later found to be caused by neural degeneration. Deindividuation: the process by which individuals come to feel that they are simply part of a corporate entity, such as group or crowd members. Deinstitutionalization: Change in locus of mental health care from traditional, institutional setting to community-based services. Sometimes called trans institutionalization because it often merely shifts the patients from one institution (the hospital) to another (such as a prison). Deixis: the notion of deixis refers to linguistic expre ssions which signal the contextual existence of persons, objects and similar orientational features. Deictic words include personal pronouns, adver bials of time and place and expression signaling an honorific dimension. Deja pense: A condition in which a thought never entertained before is incorrectly regarded as a repetition of a previous thought. Deja vu: Illusion of visual recognition in which a new situation incorrectly regarded as a repetition of a previous experience. Delayed conditioning: A form of classical conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is presented several seconds before the conditioned stimulus, but with both coming to an end at the same time. Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences 107 Body comparison with simultaneous conditioning or trace conditioning, delayed conditioning is considered to be the most effective. Delay-learning phenomenon (or delayed association): Denotes any case where associative learning depends on bridging a long interval between events. Delinquent act: Antisocial action by children or young people, mostly offences against property and larceny, but also including violent and sexual crimes, truancy from school, early drinking and drug abuse, and, generally refusal to conform to social rules. Delirium: An acute, reversible organic mental disorder characterized by confusion and some impairment of consciousness. It is generally associated with emotional liability, hallucinations or illusions, and inappropriate, impulsive, irrational, or violent behaviour. Delirium tremens: An acute and sometimes fatal reaction to withdrawal from alcohol, usually occurring 72 to 96 hours after the ceszation of heavy drinking. Its distinctive characteristic is marked autonomic hereactivity (tachycardia, fever, hyper hidrosis, dilated pupils), which is usually accom panied by tremulousness, hallucinations or illusions, and delusions. Delusion: A false belief that is firmly held, despite objective and obvious contradictory proof or evidence and despite the fact that other members of the culture do not share the belief. Delusion that events, objects, or the behaviour of others have a particular and unusual meaning specifically for oneself. Nihilistic delusion (delusion of negation) Depressive delusion that the world and everything related to it have ceased to exist. Delusion centering on sexual identity, appearances practices, or ideas, Somatic delusion. Delusion, mood-congruent: See Mood congruent psychotic features Delusion mood incongruent: See Mood incongruent psychotic features Demand characteristics: the sum total of cues (derived from the manner in which the subject is solicited. The manner in which he is treated by the experimenter, the scuttlebutt about the experiment, the experimental instructions, and, most important, the experimental procedure itself) that communi cates the purpose of the experiment and the nature of the behaviour expected of the subject. By extensions, as applied to non Dictionary of Psychology & Allied Sciences 109 experimental settings, the tendency of individuals to live up to what is implicitly expected of them, a factor that may play a major role in the outcome of treatment.

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Social and play development are arrested but social interest tends to be maintained. Trunk ataxia and apraxia start to develop by age four years and choreoathetoid movements frequently follow. Typically, this is accompanied by a general loss of interest in the environment, by stereotyped, repetitive motor mannerisms, and by autistic-like abnormalities in social interaction and communication. In some cases the disorder can be shown to be due to some associated encephalopathy but the diagnosis should be made on the behavioural features. In adolescence, the overactivity tends to be replaced by underactivity (a pattern that is not usual in hyperkinetic children with normal intelligence). This syndrome is also often associated with a variety of developmental delays, either specific or global. It differs from autism primarily in the fact that there is no general delay or retardation in language or in cognitive development. Hyperkinetic children are often reckless and impulsive, prone to accidents, and find themselves in disciplinary trouble because of unthinking breaches of rules rather than deliberate defiance. Their relationships with adults are often socially disinhibited, with a lack of normal caution and reserve. Impairment of cognitive functions is common, and specific delays in motor and language development are disproportionately frequent. Such behaviour should amount to major violations of age-appropriate social expectations; it should therefore be more severe than ordinary childish mischief or adolescent rebelliousness and should imply an enduring pattern of behaviour (six months or longer). Features of conduct disorder can also be symptomatic of other psychiatric conditions, in which case the underlying diagnosis should be preferred. Examples of the behaviours on which the diagnosis is based include excessive levels of fighting or bullying, cruelty to other people or animals, severe destructiveness to property, fire-setting, stealing, repeated lying, truancy from school and running away from home, unusually frequent and severe temper tantrums, and disobedience. Any one of these behaviours, if marked, is sufficient for the diagnosis, but isolated dissocial acts are not. Includes: Conduct disorder, solitary aggressive type Unsocialized aggressive disorder F91. Includes: Conduct disorder, group type Group delinquency Offences in the context of gang membership Stealing in company with others Truancy from school F91. Caution should be employed before using this category, especially with older children, because clinically significant conduct disorder will usually be accompanied by dissocial or aggressive behaviour that goes beyond mere defiance, disobedience, or disruptiveness. Developmental appropriateness is used as the key diagnostic feature in defining the difference between these emotional disorders, with onset specific to childhood, and the neurotic disorders (F40-F48). It is differentiated from normal separation anxiety when it is of a degree (severity) that is statistically unusual (including an abnormal persistence beyond the usual age period), and when it is associated with significant problems in social functioning. Excludes: mood [affective] disorders (F30-F39) neurotic disorders (F40-F48) phobic anxiety disorder of childhood (F93. Other fears that arise in childhood but that are not a normal part of psychosocial development (for example agoraphobia) should be coded under the appropriate category in section F40-F48. This category should be used only where such fears arise during the early years, and are both unusual in degree and accompanied by problems in social functioning. A sibling rivalry disorder should be diagnosed only if the degree or persistence of the disturbance is both statistically unusual and associated with abnormalities of social interaction. In many instances, serious environmental distortions or privations probably play a crucial role in etiology. The disorder is usually associated with marked personality features involving social anxiety, withdrawal, sensitivity, or resistance. Use additional code to identify any associated failure to thrive or growth retardation. A tic is an involuntary, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movement (usually involving circumscribed muscle F98. Tics tend to be experienced as irresistible but usually they can be suppressed for varying periods of time, are exacerbated by stress, and disappear during sleep. Common simple motor tics include only eye-blinking, neck-jerking, shoulder shrugging, and facial grimacing. The tics usually take the form of eye-blinking, facial grimacing, or head-jerking. The vocal tics are often multiple with explosive repetitive vocalizations, throat-clearing, and grunting, and there may be the use of obscene words or phrases. Sometimes there is associated gestural echopraxia which may also be of an obscene nature (copropraxia). Some of the conditions represent well-defined syndromes but others are no more than symptom complexes that need inclusion because of their frequency and association with psychosocial problems, and because they cannot be incorporated into other syndromes. The enuresis may have been present from birth or it may have arisen following a period of acquired bladder control. The enuresis may or may not be associated with a more widespread emotional or behavioural disorder. The condition may occur as a monosymptomatic disorder, or it may form part of a wider disorder, especially an emotional disorder (F93. Includes: Functional encopresis Incontinence of faeces of nonorganic origin Psychogenic encopresis Use additional code to identify the cause of any coexisting constipation. It generally involves food refusal and extreme faddiness in the presence of an adequate food supply, a reasonably competent caregiver, and the absence of organic disease. Includes: Rumination disorder of infancy Excludes: anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders (F50. It may occur as one of many symptoms that are part of a more widespread psychiatric disorder (such as autism), or as a relatively isolated psychopathological behaviour; only the latter is classified here. The phenomenon is most common in mentally retarded children and, if mental retardation is also present, F70-F79 should be selected as the main diagnosis. When such movements occur as symptoms of some other disorder, only the overall disorder should be recorded. The movements that are of a non self-injurious variety include: body-rocking, head-rocking, hair plucking, hair-twisting, finger-flicking mannerisms, and hand-flapping. Stereotyped self injurious behaviour includes repetitive head-banging, face-slapping, eye-poking, and biting of hands, lips or other body parts. All the stereotyped movement disorders occur most frequently in association with mental retardation (when this is the case, both should be recorded). If eye poking occurs in a child with visual impairment, both should be coded: eye-poking under this category and the visual condition under the appropriate somatic disorder code. Includes: Stereotype/habit disorder Excludes: abnormal involuntary movements (R25. It should be classified as a disorder only if its severity is such as to markedly disturb the fluency of speech. For use of this category reference should be made to the relevant morbidity and mortality coding rules and guidelines. Excludes: epileptic seizure related to psychoactive substance withdrawal (F10-F19 with common fourth characters. Includes: with mention of hypertension (I10-I15) Use additional code to identify presence of hypertension. I20 Angina pectoris Use additional code from category (E10-E14) with fourth and fifth characters. The "sequelae" include conditions specified as such or as late effects, or those present one year or more after onset of the causal condition. J09 Influenza due to certain identified influenza virus Note: Influenza caused by influenza virus strains of special epidemiological importance with an animal-human or inter-human transmission limited to the inclusions. Includes: Influenza A/H1N1 pandemic 2009 [swine flu] Influenza A/H5N1 epidemic [avian influenza] Use additional code to identify pneumonia or other manifestations. Complicated haemorrhoids include those with additional signs of strangulation, thrombosis, necrosis and/or ulceration.

Syndromes

  • Various snakes found at zoos
  • LDH (level of this enzyme rises as a result of tissue damage)
  • Washing of the skin (irrigation) -- perhaps every few hours for several days
  • Type 1 diabetes can occur at any age, but it is most often diagnosed in children, teens, or young adults. In this disease, the body makes little or no insulin. Daily injections of insulin are needed. The exact cause is unknown.
  • Nutritionists or dietitians
  • Seborrheic dermatitis

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While on a fellowship with he held from September the American Political Science Association, he served as 2010-December 2017. Prior to Iraq, Hill served as States negotiating team in the Bosnia peace settlement assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific and was a recipient of the Robert S. Frasure Award for Affairs from 2005-2009, during which he was the head Peace Negotiations for his work on the Kosovo crisis. He speaks Polish, Serbo ambassador to the Republic of Macedonia (1996-1999) Croatian and Macedonian. The signing will take place in the Exhibit Hall (State and East Rooms) starting at 5:30 p. She previously has served of Public Administration and as an elected member to the national policy council of the past president of the American Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. Her books include In 2016, she was appointed to the Virginia Community Why Research Methods Matter (2018, Melvin and Leigh), College System board by Governor Terence McAuliffe. Management and Budget, deputy chief of staff to the A visionary leader with experience president, chief of staff to the secretary of the Treasury, in the public and private sectors, and special assistant to the director of the National President Burwell brings to Economic Council. American University a commitment to education and Burwell has held leadership positions at two of the research, the ability to manage largest foundations in the world. Before that, she served A second-generation Greek American, Burwell is a native as the director of the Office of Management and Budget, of Hinton, West Virginia. She and her husband Stephen working with Congress to negotiate a two-year budget Burwell are the parents of two young children. In both roles she was known as a leader who worked successfully across the aisle and focused on delivering results for the American people. Public Administration Review Awards Awards Presented Louis Brownlow Award National Public Service Awards Laverne Burchfield Award Donald C. He has been at the forefront of issues and legislation represented Delaware for 36 years related to terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, post in the U. As the 47th Vice President of the United States, Joe Biden continued his leadership on important issues facing the Joseph Robinette Biden, Jr. In 1953, the Biden interagency efforts, and worked with Congress in his fight family moved from Pennsylvania to Claymont, Delaware. Syracuse Law School and served on the New Castle County In the final year of the Administration, Vice President Council. Then, at age 29, he became one of the youngest Biden led the Cancer Moonshot, an international effort to people ever elected to the United States Senate. Vice President Biden was opportunity for all, both in the United States and abroad, sworn into the U. University of Pennsylvania, the Biden Cancer Initiative, and the Biden Institute at the University of Delaware. Jill these non-profit organizations, Vice President Biden and Biden, who holds a Doctorate in Education, is a life-long Dr. Biden are developing programs designed to advance educator and currently teaches at a community college in smart policies, convene experts and world leaders on the Northern Virginia. In addition, Vice President Biden formed a political action He was deployed to Iraq in 2008-2009. His Finally, in November 2017, Vice President Biden released daughter Ashley is a social worker and Executive Director his second book, Promise Me, Dad: A Year of Hope, of the Delaware Center for Justice. School of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee for 12 years, then Public Policy and Administration. Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Administrative Law, Nonproft, Public and Nonproft Budgeting, Social Equity Financial Management spa. Chinese Ballroom Administration and as director of the Institute for Future Global Public Administration Government at Yonsei University, South Korea. His research interests this panel will discuss the role of public administration include public management, in developing and advancing rule-ordered institutions. Speakers director and vice president of the Korean Association of also will look at specific examples from several nations Public Administration in 2017. She Price School of Public Policy, has more than 35 years of experience working as a University of Southern California. Rubin is a National Academy of Public Administration fellow and has been a member of editorial Kaifeng Yang boards for Public Administration Review and Public Kaifeng Yang is professor in the Budgeting and Finance. She has edited books and book Askew School of Public chapters and published articles in many professional Administration and Policy, Florida journals, and served as a visiting professor at universities International University, and dean outside the United States, including Xiamen University, and professor in the School of Jiangxi University and Sun Yat Sen University in China. Public Administration and Policy, She has been a Fulbright senior specialist program Renmin University of China. He is improvement strategy is using data and evidence to learn a National Academy of Public Administration fellow. During this panel, you will hear from select agencies about practices that enable Public Service them to leverage data in making important decisions and improving program management and performance. Of the many challenges our country faces, the instability of the middle class is one that could yield the most Moderator dramatic consequences for our nation if not effectively Mallory Bulman addressed.

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Sandra Griffin Negreiros (Facultad de Matematica y Computacion, In series: Mathematics Research Developments Universidad de La Habana, Cuba) 2017. One collects some old problems on lattice orders and directed partial this book aims to present models and methods for objective analysis orders on complex numbers and quaternions, and summarizes recent associated with human health and environment protection. Chapter Two discusses spin deals mainly with specific models based on statistics, operational 1 particles with anomalous magnetic moments in the external uniform research and mathematical logic, as well as the need for developing electric field. Other books have approached the themes covered in used to construct solutions for a spin 1 particle with anomalous magnetic this volume. However, they do not simultaneously include statistics, moment in the external uniform magnetic field. Chapter Five reviews concept behind the organization of this work is to provide a reference for the basic concepts of quaternion and reduced biquaternions algebra. The readership target groups are leader-follower formation control problem of quadrotors. Chapter Seven graduate students or researchers in statistics, operations research, and considers determinantal representations the Drazin and weighted Drazin computing; professionals dealing with psychometric, social, biomedical, inverses over the quaternion skew field. The first five chapters address statistic issues applied to human health and environment protection. The next four Research in Applied Mathematics chapters concern the use of mathematical logic to improve modelling Zhong Wang (School of Mathematical Sciences, and decision-making. Moreover, readers interested in more advanced topics will Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing, Guang Dong, China) obtain references for consulting contemporary literature on several In series: Mathematics Research Developments themes. Applications and Technology Topics discussed include, Linear Systems, the Discrete Davey-Stewart Virginia Gray System, Kukles Systems, nonlinear equations, differential equations, In series: Mathematics Research Developments and many other advanced and relevant topics in mathematics. Chapter Two studies Consultante (Emeritus), Faculatad Matcom, the factor analysis of an outcome measurement survey for science, Universidad De La Habana, Havana, Cuba) technology and society. Pseudo-Matroids and Cuts of Matroids this book is concerned with fostering theoretical issues on stochastic Sergey A. Lyamin (Scientific programming and discussing how it can solve real life problems. The notions of pseudo-matroids generated by title is graduate students or researchers in optimization, approximation, mappings of matroids, G-mappings of binary matroids and semi Science and Technology 149 statistics, operations research and computing, as well as professionals the Robust Control Theory involves powerful methods for analysis and dealing with applications where uncertainty may be modeled by using design of control systems in presence of signal and parameter stochastic optimization and academics. The most frequently used techniques for robust control specialists in stochastic programming. In this book, Chapter One reviews issues related to the design and practical implementation of high the Logic of Digital Circuits order robust controllers. Chapter Two deals with multi-objective disturbance attenuation control and filtering problems for disturbances Alexey Glebov (National Research University of from different classes. Chapter Three discusses a robust control design Electronic Technology, Moscow, Russia) for general switched affine control systems. Seung-Bok Choi (Department of Mechanical the book begins with four introductory chapters devoted to Boolean algebraic functions and Binary Decision Diagrams. Chapter Five contains the results on inherently actuating and sensing capabilities. The second part contains the distributed parameter structures by controlling the mass-distribution, results on theory and applications of logic correlations between circuit stiffness change and the dissipation change. The following applications are considered: by semi-active control or active control methods associated with the noise analysis of digital circuits (both functional and delay noise), timing smart material actuators. Among many candidates of smart materials, analysis with detecting false paths, and digital circuit obfuscation. This book can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference book for potential researchers who are interested in vibration control utilizing new methods associated with smart materials actuators. For students of media and communication, this 150 Science and Technology book opens an array of information. Chapter Five focuses on a detailed description about the current progress in the development of pH Television and Romance: Studies, Observations and responsive chitosan-based nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Zacharie Bartul and Jerome Trenor What effect does television viewing have on the quality of marriage life In series: Advances in Nanotechnology this is one of the questions that the authors discuss within this new book, 2017. This book includes entries Nanotechnology is the study of the controlling of matter on an atomic written by leading international scholars that interpret the way romance and molecular scale and is also very diverse, ranging from extensions of is portrayed on television, and the mark left by this portrayal on viewers. This book gathers and presents data on other half consists of theoretical and critical accounts. Chapter One examines the role of atomic particles and offers in-depth analysis of some of the most successful programs in nanoparticles in catalysis. Chapter Two reviews the preparations of recent years in America (How I Met Your Mother), Britain (Silent nanoporous microelectrodes, their physical and electrochemical Witness), Spain (Los Protegidos) and other countries along with detailed characterization, their electrochemical behaviors, and their promising reviews of the home screen representation of love life within various applications. Chapter Three studies controllable growth methods for demographic groups (single white men), age cohorts (elderly) and other device applications of gold nanorods. The outcome of exposure to popular programming on romantic overview of various antibody-nanoparticle conjugating modalities and fidelity, dating plans, cohabitation expectations and other romance their potential clinical application. This book is an essential methods available to fabricate delivery systems depending upon the addition to any serious library collections in media studies. He is Fiber-Based Optical Trapping and Manipulation the author/editor of four books and nearly 100 journal articles and book chapters. He is also a media celebrity in his home country, Israel, where Baojun Li and Hongbao Xin (Institute of he takes part in reality shows as a consultant and commentator, and takes Nanophotonics, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China) an active role in anti-censorship campaigns. Ashkin, optical trapping and manipulation has been widely used in the interdisciplines of micro and nano-photonics, biophotonics, biomedicine, etc. Using optical fibers with different configurations, optical Nanotechnology is the study of the controlling of matter on an atomic trapping and manipulation with multiple functions can be realized with and molecular scale and is also very diverse, ranging from extensions of high flexibility, precision, and integration. By launching laser beams conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon with different wavelengths into the fiber, both the photothermal effect molecular self-assembly. This book gathers and presents data on and optical force can be used for optical trapping and manipulation. Chapter One reviews the use of high energy ball the optical force manipulation, both evanescent fields at the surface of a milling as a new tool to help in the preparation of polymer subwavelength optical fiber and light output from a fiber end can be used nanocomposites. The manipulation with light output from a fiber significant advances in organic photodetectors based on small-molecule end can be divided into dual fiber tweezers and single fiber tweezers. Chapter Four reviews the approaches for the assembly of biophotonic components and devices. This this book provides a broad discussion on recent research advances in fiber supported photonic nanojet can be easily used for the trapping and gold nanomaterials. Since their use in glass staining during the Gothic detection of nanoparticles and biomolecules. Optical fiber-based optical and Renaissance period, gold nanomaterials have recently been more trapping and manipulation have the advantages of easy fabrication, extensively studied and used in different fields, including applications in compact configuration, flexible manipulation, easy integration, wide biomedical and energy domains. While there are a number of excellent books on the Nanopores and Nanoporous Materials market covering various types of nanomaterials, there are very few monographs to date that specifically focus on the broad research areas Traci Morton on gold nanomaterials. This book attempts to capture the recent In series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology developments in gold nanomaterials research through nine chapters in 2016. Many of the chapters contain introductions to the Over the past decade, the research community has been paying particular basic physical and chemical principles of the subject area. The authors attention to organic, inorganic and hybrid porous materials, mainly due hope that this book will serve as a good introduction to people just to the plethora of promising applications offered by such architectures entering the field, and also for practitioners and experts seeking in areas as diverse as (nano)filtration and separation techniques, information in other subfields of gold nanomaterials. This book Applications provides current research on nanopores and nanoporous materials. Benjamin Edwards Chapter One affords a critically selected survey of these elegant In series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology approaches toward functional nanoporous polymers and investigates 2017. Chapter Three significant activities that includes the production and application of presents an overview of the developments in soft nanoporous organic nanostructures. It is an emerging technology that will contribute to materials by self-assembly of peptide, polyamide and polyimide economic prosperity by providing solutions to challenges that face moieties. Its applications cut across many scientific boundaries, from electronics to medicine, to advance manufacturing, to cosmetics. Silver Nanosheets and Nanospheres: Types, Applications nanoparticles are the most widely produced and marketed nanoparticles. This book provides new research on the In series: Nanotechnology Science and Technology advances and the many applications of silver nanoparticles.

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Amiodarone versus placebo and class Ic drugs for cardioversion of recent-onset 616. Rapidloadingofsotaloloramiodaroneformanagementofrecenton achieving sinus rhythm in patients with recent-onset atrial brillation: a rando set symptomatic atrial brillation: a randomized, digoxin-controlled trial. Arandomizedtrial PoelzlG, Kratzer H, Ebner A, HohenwallnerW, Lenz K, Slany J, Kuhn P. Prospect of prophylactic antiarrhythmic agents (amiodarone and sotalol) in patients with ive comparison of ecainide versus sotalol for immediate cardioversion of atrial atrial brillation for whom direct current cardioversion is planned. Vernakalanthydro ysmal atrial brillation compared to episodic in-hospital treatment or continuous chloride for rapid conversion of atrial brillation: a phase 3, randomized, placebo antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Propafenone for conversion and prophy sion of atrial brillation after cardiac surgery: a randomized, double-blind, laxis of atrial brillation. Treatment of stable lateral electrode positions forexternal cardioversion of atrialbrillation: a rando atrial brillation in the emergency department: a population-based comparison mised trial. A trial of self-adhesive patch electrodes and hand-held paddle electrodes for ex 608. Cardioversion of acute placebo-controlled trial of pre-treatment and short or long-term maintenance atrial brillation in the emergency department: a prospective randomised trial. Continuous vs episodic prophylactic atrial brillation: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Dronedarone for the control of ventricular rate in permanent atrial goxin and acute versus routine serial cardioversion for the improvement of brillation: the Efficacy and safety of dRonedArone for the cOntrol of ventricular rhythm control for persistent atrial brillation. Increased mortality after dronedarone ment on direct-current cardioversion in patients with persistent atrial brillation: therapy for severe heart failure. Dronedarone in high placebo-controlled trial of aprindine and digoxin for the prevention of symptom risk permanent atrial brillation. Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients valvular atrial brillation: the Anticoagulation in Cardioversion using Enoxaparin with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction. Shamiss Y, Khaykin Y, Oosthuizen R, TunneyD, SarakB, Beardsall M, SeabrookC, transesophageal echocardiography to guide cardioversion in patients with atrial Frost L, Wulffhart Z, Tsang B, Verma A. Amiodarone in patients with congestive heart fects: individual pre-disposition and transient precipitating factors. Bianconi L, Calo L, Mennuni M, Santini L, Morosetti P, Azzolini P, Barbato G, ion-channel-blocking actions and in vivo electrophysiological effects. Ranolazinestimulatesglucose atrial brillation: a randomized, double-blind, multicentre study. Europace 2011; oxidation in normoxic, ischemic, and reperfused ischemic rat hearts. Dabrowski R, Borowiec A, Smolis-Bak E, Kowalik I, Sosnowski C, Kraska A, alone for conversion of recent-onset atrial brillation. Ito Y, Yamasaki H, Naruse Y, Yoshida K, Kaneshiro T, Murakoshi N, Igarashi M, new-onset atrial brillation after cardiac surgery. Effect of eplerenone on maintenance of sinus rhythm after catheter the efficacy of amiodarone for conversion of recent-onset atrial brillation. Ranolazine in the treatment of at Hospitalization And SurvIval Study in Heart Failure) study. Emergency department man trocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and decreased incidence of new agement and 1-yearoutcomes of patients with atrial utter. Europace 2011; brillation or utter with conscious sedation in the age of cost containment. Buccelletti F, Iacomini P, Botta G, Marsiliani D, Carroccia A, Gentiloni Silveri N, 689. Efficacy and safety of vernakalant in recent-onset atrial brillation tin therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev after the European medicines agency approval: systematic review and 2012;4:Cd008493. Analysis of cause drug-refractory atrial brillation: a prospective, multi-centre, randomized, con specic mortality in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation ofRhythm Man trolled study (Catheter Ablation For the Cure Of Atrial Fibrillation Study). Long-term follow-up of patients from a randomised trial of atrial Pappalardo A, Laurenzi F, Avella A, Casella M, Dello Russo A, Romeo F, versus ventricular pacing for sick-sinus syndrome. Effects of physiologic pacing versus ven isolation versus antiarrhythmic drug therapy. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2009;20: tricular pacing on the risk of stroke and death due to cardiovascular causes. Treatment of atrial brillation with antiarrhythmic drugs or radiofre on the methods, efficacy, and safety of catheter ablation for human atrial brilla quency ablation: two systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses. Luik A, Radzewitz A, Kieser M, Walter M, Bramlage P, Hormann P, Schmidt K, During Catheter Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Results From the Horn N, Brinkmeier-Theofanopoulou M, Kunzmann K, Riexinger T, Schymik G, Gap-Atrial Fibrillation-German Atrial Fibrillation Competence Network 1 Trial. Cryoballoon Versus Open Irrigated Radiofrequency Abla Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2016;9:e003337. Arribas F, Fernandez-Lozano I, Bodegas A, Cobos A, Matia R, Perez-Villacastin J, 733. Cryoballoon or Radiofrequency Ablation for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrilla follow-up after catheter ablation of persistent atrial brillation using the stepwise tion. Approaches to catheter ablation Ramoul K, Komatsu Y, Roten L, Jadidi A, Linton N, Pedersen M, Daly M, for persistent atrial brillation. Catheter Ablation for At ablation strategy in patients with atrialbrillation is associated with a lower risk of rial Fibrillation in Heart Failure Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Con stroke and death. IsThereStillaRoleforCom antiarrhythmic drug therapy as rst line treatment of symptomatic atrial brilla plex Fractionated Atrial Electrogram Ablation in Addition to Pulmonary Vein Iso tion: systematic review and meta-analysis. Schweikert R, Brachmann J, Gunther J, Gutleben K, Pisano E, Potenza D, Fanelli R, J Am Coll Cardiol;doi:10. Rolf S, Kircher S, Arya A, Eitel C, Sommer P, Richter S, Gaspar T, Bollmann A, results from a worldwide survey in 34 943 atrial brillation ablation procedures. Macle L, Khairy P, Weerasooriya R, Novak P, Verma A, Willems S, Arentz T, cations, rehospitalizations, and repeat proceduresaftercatheterablation foratrial Deisenhofer I, Veenhuyzen G, Scavee C, Jais P, Puererfellner H, Levesque S, brillation. Adenosine-guided pulmonary vein isolation Comparisonoftherstandsecondcryoballoon:high-volumesingle-centersafety for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial brillation: an international, multicentre, and efficacy analysis. Focalimpulseandrotormodulationas PrakashS, BaiR, ReddyM, GianniC, HortonR, BaileyS, SigmundE, DerndorferM, a stand-alone procedure for treatment of paroxysmal atrial brillation. A within Schade A, Mueller P, Szoelloes A, Sanchez J, Al-Ahmad A, Hranitzky P, patient controlled study with implanted cardiac monitoring. Feasibility and safety of uninterrupted periprocedural apixaban administration in 745. Safety and efficacy of dabigatran etexilate during cath procedures in patients with low prevalence of structural heart disease from a sin eter ablation of atrial brillation: a meta-analysis of the literature. Feasibility and safety of uninterrupted rivaroxaban for periprocedural anticoagu 747. Shared lation in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for atrial brillation: results decision making in atrial brillation: where we are and where we should be going. Dagres N, Hindricks G, Kottkamp H, Sommer P, Gaspar T, Bode K, Arya A, Morais J, Boveda S. Delayed cardiac tamponade left atrial catheter ablation procedures for atrial arrhythmias under continuous after radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial brillation: a worldwide report.

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Only recently, adverse health effects of smoking were recognized and lead to strong anti-smoking awareness. This poses them at substantial risk for cardiovascular and chronic diseases in 2005 (12). However public policies are made widely to discourage the use of cigarette smoking. Smoking and chronic diseases Smoking is an acknowledged risk factor for different forms of cancer and several chronic diseases. Smoking is found to be associated with kidney injury both in the general population and in the patients with elevated risk for kidney disease. It has also been shown that smoking is associated with albuminuria in hypertensive patients (26). Furthermore, in patients with diabetic nephropathy it has been shown that kidney disease progresses twice as fast in smokers as in non-smoking patients (28). Likewise, smoking has been shown to be a risk factor for progression of IgA nephropathy (29-33). Interestingly, all these observations involve native kidney diseases, in which the kidney is fully innervated. One of the contemporary theories is that the detrimental effects of smoking on kidneys is through the action of nicotine on the sympathetic nervous system, thereby inducing intrarenal vasoconstriction and parenchymal ischemia (30, 34, 35). It should be noted that the kidneys of renal transplant recipients are denervated. As such, they could be protected from the adverse effects of smoking by this hypothetical pathway. In chapter 2 of this thesis we investigated the risk of mortality and graft failure associated with smoking in a stable renal transplant cohort. Another population of interest in this perspective is that of lung transplant recipients. Also, early per and peri-operative 13 Chapter 1 hemodynamic instability is a likely contributing factor. As smoking is a main progression factor in chronic pulmonary disorders, many patients that require a lung transplant have a history of heavy smoking. This population is therefore suitable to investigate the effects of former smoking in terms of mechanisms. Activation of renal nerves could at first lead to a hemodynamically mediated decline in renal function due to vasoconstriction, but eventually cause tubulo-interstitial injury due to chronic ischemia. Therefore if a current vasoconstrictive effect of nicotine is the main cause of the association of smoking with impaired renal function, one would not expect an association of former smoking with chronic kidney disease these patients suffer from. If, however, the effect is mediated by other toxic effects, former smoking could still be associated with renal disease in these patients. In chapter 3 of this thesis we describe the investigations that we performed on this topic in the lung transplant cohort of our hospital. Along with cigarette smoking alcohol is a usual part of social gatherings, dinner and parties. Excessive intake of alcohol is called alcoholism and leads to conditions like malnutrition, laryngeal cancer, esophagus cancer, depression, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer (37-42). Mild alcohol intake, however, is known to be beneficial for survival in the general population (43, 44). In the general population, alcohol usage and mortality show a J shaped curve, with mild users protected compared to non-users and heavy users (45). Also, the relation of alcohol consumption with cardiovascular disease has been widely studied. A Danish study showed an inverse association between alcohol consumption and risk of coronary artery disease (46). They showed that in moderately drinking men, risk of coronary artery disease was reduced by about 25% compared to non-drinkers. Little is known about alcohol 14 Introduction consumption in renal transplant recipients. One study found an increased risk of graft failure in recipients with alcohol addiction pre-transplantation (47). One other study reported on the prevalence of social alcohol consumption post transplantation (48), but to the best of our knowledge no studies exist on a 1 potential association of post-transplantation alcohol consumption with graft failure or mortality. Nicotine is one of the best known and the most abundant component of cigarette smoke. Once inhaled or taken in oral form as snuffs or chewing gum or used in the form of dermal patch, nicotine rapidly reaches the liver and the brain. Nicotine binds to various subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors present in central and peripheral nervous system. Nicotine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes of the liver into various metabolites. Nicotine and its metabolites are excreted from the body in urine, in stool or by exhalation (54). Nicotine and inflammation Recent literature showed that nicotine possess anti-inflammatory properties (55-57). Nicotinic receptors are also present on monocytes and endothelial 15 Chapter 1 cells. Binding of nicotine to the a7nAchR present on endothelial and macrophages leads to deactivation of those cells and thereby down-regulation of inflammation. In line with these actions, nicotine has been found to be associated with a more favorable prognosis in many observational studies of diseases of inflammatory origin. In animal models nicotine attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced kidney damage (59-61). Proteinuria and kidney inflammation Intrarenal inflammation is involved in many, if not all types of progressive renal damage. In some renal conditions an inflammatory disorder is the primary trigger for renal damage, such as ischemia reperfusion injury, or glomerulonephritis. Excess presence of proteins in the renal tubules leads to tubular uptake of the leaked proteins and hence activates the tubulo-interstitial cells to secrete inflammatory cytokines (64). Persistent inflammation can lead to irreversible damage with extra-cellular matrix deposition and scarring of tissue. The damage caused by uncontrolled inflammation may in turn aggravate proteinuria (66). Possible interventions in the process are either anti-inflammatory treatment with immunosuppressive 16 Introduction drugs or with calcineurin inhibitors. In inflammatory kidney diseases such as IgA nephropathy or primary glomerulonephritis, such treatments can be successful in selected patients (67). Long term treatment however is limited due to side effects such as increased susceptibility to infections. Moreover, 1 calcineurin inhibitors have also direct renal adverse effects like interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy and medial arteriolar hyalinosis (68). In chapter 5 of this thesis, we therefore investigated the renal effects of oral nicotine in a rat model of spontaneous proteinuria. Neointima formation and end organ damage Neointima formation may occur due to the damage to the protective endothelial cell layer lining the blood vessels (69-71). The damaged endothelial cells get activated in response to the injury and initiate an inflammatory response. The injury could be due to shear stress related to high blood pressure, ischemia/reperfusion injury or immunological injuries. Neointima formation is a complex and active process, in which cellular proliferation, cellular death, cell migration and deposition of extra cellular matrix occur simultaneously (10). The neointima consists of vascular smooth muscle cells, extra cellular matrix and inflammatory cells. The formation of neointima leads to decreased luminal patency and reduced blood supply, with subsequent ischemia in the end-organ. Since neointima clearly involves an inflammatory component, we 17 Chapter 1 studied the effects of oral nicotine on renal neointima formation in two different experimental models of progressive renal failure in chapter 6 of this thesis.

References:

  • https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/205621.pdf
  • https://irjponline.com/admin/php/uploads/3079_pdf.pdf
  • http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/44135/InTech-Acute_lymphoblastic_leukemia_in_children.pdf
  • http://midus.wisc.edu/findings/pdfs/1524.pdf
  • http://sitn.hms.harvard.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Psych_DayCon_060315.2.pdf

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